17 (SD = 6.46). In terms of specific PMT intervention components patients and caregivers received, 38.1% of sessions included training in reward learn more systems, 33.3% focused on psychoeducation, 28.6% included training in specific praise, 14.3% focused on selective ignoring, and 9.5% taught parents to use time-out strategies (patients and caregivers could have received more than one intervention component; thus, percentages do not add to 100). Other interventions used were: helping patients and caregivers establish a routine, providing instructions for child-directed play time, and enhancing communication skills. BHCs were licensed clinical social workers, licensed psychologists, or clinical psychology doctoral trainees.
Details about the behavioral health visits are provided in Table 3. B-Raf assay Children’s level of global distress and functional impairment were measured via caregivers’ (for children 1–11 years of age) or self (for youth 12–17 years of age) report on the A Collaborative Outcomes Resource Network questionnaire (ACORN; Brown, 2011). The ACORN was given to each patient or their caregiver at the first and each subsequent behavioral health session. The 16-item child caregiver version of the ACORN assesses global levels of psychiatric symptoms in youth 11 years of age or younger over the previous 2 weeks. Items assess mood, anxiety, disruptive behaviors, and attentional concerns. Responses are scored on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (never)
to 4 (very often) and scores are averaged to form a global distress score (GDS). Adolescents’ global distress and functional impairment were measured via the youth self-report version of the ACORN. This version contains 17 items and is to be used for youth ages 12 to 17 years of age. Questions assess global levels of psychiatric distress and include items about drug use and self-harm ideation. All versions of the ACORN include four items that assess therapeutic alliance and satisfaction with behavioral health services. Reliability (i.e., Cronbach’s
alpha) of the ACORN has been estimated at .92 when used with adult clinical for samples ( Brown, 2011). In the current sample, Cronbach alpha for the child GDS was .93 and for the adolescent GDS was .79. For therapeutic alliance scores, Cronbach alpha in the child version was .89 and for adolescents it was .88. Data on the validity of the child caregiver version are not available, but global distress scores from the adult version of the ACORN were found to correlate significantly with the Beck Depression Inventory (r = .78) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (r = .82). The mean GDS for adults currently in treatment is reported to be 2.1 (SD = 0.7). The ACORN manual specifies that benchmarks for clinically meaningful improvement are an effect size (Cohen’s d) of .50 or greater. A paired-samples t-test showed significant improvement in child global distress following IBHC treatment (Mpre = 1.72, SDpre = 0.81; Mpost = 1.21, SDpost = 0.