In tissues, inflammatory signals mediated by direct recognition of fungal cell wall components or other fungal products by PRRs, recruit additional immune cells and drive adaptive immune responses. IFN-γ produced by Th1 lymphocytes is fundamental for stimulating the antifungal activity of neutrophils. The central role of endogenous IFN-γ in the resistance against
systemic fungal infection is underscored by the observation that KO mice deficient in IFN-γ are highly susceptible to disseminated C. albicans infection . In addition, mice deficient in IL-18, which plays a crucial role in the induction of IFN-γ, are also more susceptible to disseminated candidiasis MG-132 order . Th1 also appears to be protective in the host defense against Aspergillus. Cells producing IFN-γ are induced by Aspergillus in immunocompetent mice. Live conidia, which undergo swelling and germination, are able to prime Th1 responses . It has been elegantly demonstrated that CD4+ T cells differentiate during respiratory fungal infection, with TLR-mediated signals in the lymph node enhancing the potential for IFN-γ production, whereas other signals promote Th1 differentiation Selumetinib in the
lung . Although many studies focused on the pathological aspects of IL-17-producing T cells in many autoimmune diseases, studies examining T-cell polarization in response to PAMPs have identified an array of fungal components that preferentially induce the Th17 lineage , suggesting a role for Th17 cells in fungus-induced host defense, such as those specific for C. albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, and Criptococcus spp. The observation that mice deficient in IL-17RA show an increased susceptibility to disseminated C. albicans infection first demonstrated the critical involvement
of Th17 responses in protective anti-Candida host defenses . Although this suggests a protective role for Th17 response in fungal infection, negative effects of Th17-mediated inflammatory responses to intragastric Doxorubicin in vitro C. albicans infection in mice have also been reported , as well as higher susceptibility to Candida and Aspergillus infection in absence of Toll IL1R8 (TIR8), a negative regulator of Th17 responses . On the other hand, patients with impaired Candida-specific Th17 responses, such as patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, are especially susceptible to mucosal C. albicans infections . These observations strongly indicate that Th17 responses are important for human anti-Candida mucosal host defense since patients with genetic defects in the receptor dectin-1 or in its signaling (a potent activator of Th17) suffer from chronic mucosal fungal infections [45, 46]. Mucosal Th17-cell subsets and their associated cytokines, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, have been shown to play key roles in discriminating colonization and invasive fungal disease [47-49].