22–24 We compared the SD-induced apoptotic percentage of β-arrest

22–24 We compared the SD-induced apoptotic percentage of β-arrestin 2+/+ with β-arrestin 2−/− MEFs. As shown in Fig. 5(a), β-arrestin 2−/− MEFs showed TUNEL-positive cells at higher rate for a period of 24 hr, whereas β-arrestin 2+/+

MEFs seemed relatively resistant to SD-induced apoptosis, which is consistent with the previous observation in N-formyl-peptide-receptor-induced apoptotic events.22 Apoptosis of HEK293/TLR4 was also selleck chemicals assessed in the absence or presence of β-arrestin 2. Results also showed that β-arrestin 2 caused reduced apoptosis upon stimulation of SD (Fig. 5b), in agreement with the observation from MEFs. Nevertheless, β-arrestin 2 failed to inhibit apoptosis with statistical significance when co-transfected with GSK-3β active mutant S9A, or pre-treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, both of which are known to produce active GSK-3β, directly or indirectly,8,11 indicating that highly active GSK-3β is able to mask the anti-apoptotic effect of β-arrestin 2. Therefore, this website we conclude that GSK-3β inactivation is required for the inhibition of SD-induced apoptosis by β-arrestin 2. Although TLRs are well-defined receptors in the innate immune response against invading pathogens, an additional role of cell surface TLR4 is to sense danger signals from tissue damage, necrotic cells or stressful survival conditions where the infection is not necessary.3 The TLR4 appears to

be functionally activated when exposed to such danger signals.1,3 Activation of apoptosis through TLR4 signalling is an alternative regulatory mechanism for deciding cell fate.29,32,33 The current study was designed to identify the potential mechanism accounting for the increased susceptibility to cell damage resulting from trophic withdrawal in the presence of TLR4. Apoptotic signalling induced by TLR4 shares a number of components from its immune signalling pathway, MyD88, IRF3 for instance.34–36 The GSK-3β previously has been identified as a vital regulator Enzalutamide datasheet in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production through transcription factor cAMP response element binding

protein and c-Jun, following LPS treatment.7,8 Also, it has been well characterized as having roles in inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death.9,10,37 The mechanism of how TLR4 induction of apoptosis occurs via GSK-3β is to be addressed in our study. The GSK-3β is activated in serum deprivation culture because starvation inhibits the upstream PI3K/Akt pathway.10–12 Intriguingly, TLR4 causes dramatic GSK-3β activation relative to the same condition without TLR4. It raises the possibility that the regulation of GSK-3β activity may account for the excessive apoptotic event induced by TLR4. This study demonstrates that excessive apoptosis is attenuated by GSK-3β inhibition. Notably, a reduced apoptotic signal can be achieved by the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 or the inactive mutant GSK-3β (K85A).

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