7B), but in the WG and RG groups, mucosal thickening was moderate

7B), but in the WG and RG groups, mucosal thickening was moderately reduced, and RG seemed to be more effective than WG. AHR is a particular feature of asthma and leads to recurrent episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing [22]. In the present study, we observed AHR changes by methacholine challenge testing. WG and RG inhibited AHR as evidence by reductions in Penh values to levels similar to those observed in the naïve group (Fig. 4). Asthma is associated with IgE production, for example, recent studies on the effects of anti-IgE therapy have confirmed

that IgE plays an important role in asthma [23] and [24]. Balza et al [24] reported a positive relationship between airway IgE expression

and serum BGB324 order IgE levels. In the present study, the expression of IgE in serum was markedly higher in the PBS-treated control group than in the naïve group, but WG or RG administration significantly decreased IgE serum level (Fig. 5), and RG was more effective than WG. However, neither WG nor RG influenced IgG1 and IgG2a serum levels in asthmatic mice (Fig. 6). Th2 cell-associated inflammation is considered as CP-868596 solubility dmso an important mediator of asthma, and Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are thought to drive the disease pathology [25]. Moreover, there is strong evidence that the Th2-cytokine pattern plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma via the release of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 [26]. Accordingly, we analyzed the cytokine profiles of bronchial lymph node cells after in vitro OVA stimulation. High levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-13 production confirmed the Th2 nature of the inflammatory response in the PBS treated control group ( Fig. 8). Furthermore, cytokine production by lymphocytes in the WG and RG groups was significantly lower than in the control

group, and RG was again more effective Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase than WG. WG and RG effectively suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into bronchoalveolar regions. AHR and airway remodeling in OVA-induced asthma were also ameliorated by WG and RG. The study shows that WG and RG regulate serum IgE levels, which is an important biomarker of asthma. In addition, WG and RG significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production by peribronchial lymphocytes. Furthermore, RG was more potent than WG in all respects. However, as most medicinal herbs have multiple components, it is unclear which component plays key roles in the above-mentioned activities. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the key molecules underlying these effects and efficacies. The authors have no potential conflict of interest to declare. The authors alone are responsible for the writing of this paper. This work was supported by the 2011 Specialzation Project Research Grant funded by the Pusan National University.

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