Because a genotype-mediated difference only arises following gona

Because a genotype-mediated difference only arises following gonadectomy, the chromosomal contribution to myelination and remyelination is subtle yet significant. To explain this difference, we propose a possible asymmetry in the expression of myelination-related genes in XX vs. XY mice

that needs to be investigated in future studies. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on neuroimaging studies, the striatum is reported to be abnormal in size, but it is still not clear how they change during developmental stages. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are the commonly used animal model for ADHD. We investigated volume differences of the striatum at various ages before puberty in SHRs versus a control Selleckchem AZD1080 strain, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Volumes of the bilateral striatum were measured using micrographs of Nissl-stained serial sections in both strains of rats at the ages of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 weeks (n

= 4, each strain at each age). The results demonstrated that the age of a significant striatal volume difference between SHRs and WKYs was 5 weeks; however, there was no significant difference for the corresponding total brain volume, at each matched age. It suggested that the timing for striatal abnormalities in ADHD occurs during an early stage of childhood. Ilomastat clinical trial (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of

published and unpublished studies.

Methods We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985-2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or Dichloromethane dehalogenase coronary death.

Findings 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1.49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7.5 years [SD 1.7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1.23 (95% CI 1.10-1.37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1.43, 1.15-1.77) than unpublished (1.16, 1.02-1.32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1.31, 1.15-1.48) and 5 years (1.

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