In addition, the latter includes ectasia and spinal drainage as c

In addition, the latter includes ectasia and spinal drainage as criteria of two distinct grades. However, none of the above classifications (a) differentiates direct from exclusive leptomeningeal venous drainage, (b)

considers cortical venous congestion as a factor potentially associated with an aggressive clinical course, and (c) anticipates ectasia in shunts with a mixed dural-cortical venous drainage (type 2). In this study, we analyzed the angiographic images of 107 consecutive patients having a cranial dural arteriovenous fistula with leptomeningeal venous drainage, based on a newly developed scheme. This scheme, symbolized with the acronym “DES,” groups the dural shunts according to three factors: directness and exclusivity of leptomeningeal venous drainage and signs of Selleckchem CYT387 venous strain. According to the combination of the three factors, eight different groups were distinguished. All analyzed cases could Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor be assigned to one of these groups. Directness of leptomeningeal venous drainage expresses the exact site of the shunt (bridging vein vs sinus wall), whereas exclusivity expresses venous outlet restrictions. All bridging vein shunts had a direct leptomeningeal venous drainage. Almost all bridging vein shunts and all “isolated” sinus shunts had an exclusive leptomeningeal

venous drainage. Venous strain, manifested as ectasia and/or congestion, denotes the decompensation of the cerebral venous system due to the shunt reflux. The comparison of the presented concept with the currently used classifications highlighted the advantages of the former and the weaknesses of the latter.”
“Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram

isolate of MYMV, has five variable and infective DNA B components of which KA22 and KA27 DNA Bs share only 72% nucleotide sequence identity between them. Agroinoculation of blackgram with partial dimers of DNA A and KA27 DNA B caused severe stunting and an inordinate delay in flowering. Interestingly, co-agroinoculation www.selleckchem.com/products/EX-527.html of KA27 + KA22 DNA B components along with DNA A ameliorated severe stunting, rescued from the delay in flowering and caused the appearance of yellow mosaic symptom characteristic of KA22 DNA B. Post-agroinoculation of KA27 DNA B-infected blackgram plants with KA22 DNA B also resulted in the amelioration from severe stunting and in the alleviation from the delay in flowering. Alleviation from KA27 DNA B-type of symptom by co-infection or post-infection with KA22 DNA B did not result in a corresponding reduction in KA27 DNA B levels. Swapping of KA27 DNA B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA B abolished severe stunting and caused the appearance of mild yellow symptom, suggesting that the NSP is the major symptom determinant in MYMV DNA B. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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