RESULTS: There was no significant change in the number of total c

RESULTS: There was no significant change in the number of total cases; total chief resident cases; and trauma, thoracic, or vascular procedures done per graduate. A decrease in the number of liver cases performed by the residents was noted

but includes the increase in resident complement as well as the fellowship. ACS fellow cases increased from 172 cases in the first year to 221 cases in the second year and 295 in the third year. The survey showed that the residents had a very positive response to having the fellow as a teacher and did not feel like their operative experience was compromised with the addition of the ACS fellowship. CONCLUSION: The ACS fellow did not compromise general surgery resident experience and was regarded as an asset to the resident’s education. An ACS fellowship can be beneficial to residents and fellows. Copyright (C) 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins”
“The Oubangui is a major tributary SNX-5422 manufacturer of the Congo River. We describe the biogeochemistry of contrasting tributaries within its central catchment, with watershed vegetation ranging from wooded savannahs to humid rainforest. Compared to a 2-year monitoring record on the mainstem Oubangui, these tributaries show a wide range of biogeochemical signatures,

from highly diluted blackwaters (low turbidity, pH, conductivity, and total alkalinity) in rainforests to those PD98059 solubility dmso more typical for savannah systems. Spectral analyses of chromophoric dissolved organic matter showed wide temporal variations in the Oubangui compared to spatio-temporal variations in the tributaries, and confirm that different pools of dissolved organic carbon are mobilized during different hydrological stages. delta C-13 of dissolved inorganic carbon ranged between

-28.1% and -5.8%, and was strongly correlated to both partial pressure of CO2 selleck inhibitor and to the estimated contribution of carbonate weathering to total alkalinity, suggesting an important control of the weathering regime on CO2 fluxes. All tributaries were oversaturated in dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, CO2), with highest levels in rivers draining rainforest. The high diversity observed underscores the importance of sampling that covers the variability in subcatchment characteristics, to improve our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in the Congo Basin.”
“Background. Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory tract infections in children. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HPIV type 4. Methods. A retrospective chart review and comparison of patients positive for HPIV types 1-4 by multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2009 and 2012 at Children’s Hospital Colorado was performed. Patients who had only direct fluorescent antibody testing performed or concurrent viral infections were excluded. Results. Of 11 533 samples, 752 (6.5%) were positive for HPIV.

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