The considerations presented are relevant for investigations on r

The considerations presented are relevant for investigations on risk factors for HAIs as well as for outcome studies.”
“OBJECTIVES: The anesthetic gas xenon is reported to preserve hemodynamic stability during general anesthesia. However, the effects of the gas during shock are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Xe on hemodynamic stability and tissue perfusion in a canine model of hemorrhagic shock.

METHOD: Twenty-six

dogs, mechanically ventilated with a fraction of inspired oxygen of 21% and anesthetized with etomidate and vecuronium, were randomized into Xenon (Xe; n = 13) or Control (C; n = 13) groups. Following hemodynamic monitoring, a pressure-driven shock was induced to reach an arterial pressure of 40 mmHg. Hemodynamic data and blood samples were collected prior to bleeding, immediately after bleeding and 5, 20 and 40 minutes following shock. The Xe group was treated Silmitasertib in vitro with 79% Xe diluted in ambient air, inhaled for 20 minutes after shock.

RESULT: The mean bleeding volume was 44 in the C group and 40 in the Xe group. Hemorrhage promoted a decrease in both the cardiac index (p<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (p<0.001). These changes were associated with an increase

in lactate levels and worsening of oxygen transport variables in both groups (p<0.05). Inhalation of xenon did not cause further worsening of hemodynamics or tissue SB203580 molecular weight perfusion markers.

CONCLUSIONS: Xenon did not alter hemodynamic stability or tissue perfusion in an experimentally controlled FDA approved Drug Library cell line hemorrhagic shock model. However, further studies are necessary to validate

this drug in other contexts.”
“Objective: To compare the 3-month postoperative hearing results after laser stapedotomy using a flexible potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) or CO2 laser fiber in patients with primary otosclerosis.

Study Design: Prospective nonrandomized clinical study.

Setting: Tertiary referral center, 862 stapedotomies were performed in 818 study patients between November 2006 and July 2011.

Methods: Otosclerotic stapes fixation was treated with flexible KTP laser fiber in 410 patients (431 stapedotomies) and with flexible CO2 laser fiber in 408 patients (431 stapedotomies). Their preoperative and postoperative audiometric results were compared.

Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the main effect of laser fiber type and the effect after adjustment for independent predictors of a postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) 10 dB or lower.

Results: In the KTP laser group, the mean postoperative ABG was 4.3 dB compared with 3.1 dB in the CO2 group (difference, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.9). In 90.4% of the patients in the KTP group, the postoperative ABG was 10 dB or lower, as compared with 96.5% in the CO2 group. The mean postoperative ABG at 4 KHz was 5.4 dB with KTP and 2.2 dB with CO2 (difference, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.2). Sensorineural hearing loss was reported by 1 patient with KTP laser (0.

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