The present study demonstrates that the levels of NA in sausages may be reduced by adding erythorbic acid and that the extent of the inhibition increases with increasing amount of erythorbic acid, at least up to the highest tested level of 1104 mg kg−1. The effect of concurrent presence of ascorbyl palmitate (26, 150, 450, 750 and 874 mg kg−1) however seems to have the opposite effect, i.e. to stimulate the formation of NA or to counter act the effect of erythorbic acid. Haem has been suggested to play an essential role in the endogenous formation of NA linked with high consumption compound screening assay of red and processed meat (Bingham et al., 2002, Cross et al., 2003 and Pierre et al.,
2013). Lunn et al. (2007)
also found that in an aqueous solution no nitrosation of morpholine occurred even at elevated levels of nitrite, however if haem iron was also added NMOR was produced (Lunn et al., 2007). Calcium, which can chelate the iron in haem, was by Pierre et al. (2013) found to prevent a haem induced increase in endogenous formation of nitroso compounds in humans (Pierre et al., 2013). Iron plays an essential role in lipid peroxidation processes occurring in meat and antioxidants as ascorbate/erythorbic acid inhibit these unwanted processes www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html (Igene et al., 1979 and Ladikos and Lougovois, 1990). The results of the study are presented in Fig. 5. The levels of NSAR, NDMA and NPYR were in all the tested combinations at or below the LOQ of the method. The observed effects on the levels of these three NA Lepirudin are therefore associated with high uncertainty and the results for these are not included in Fig. 5. The observations are however described as indicative results in the following. No significant effects were observed by supplementing the sausage meat with haem (myoglobin) (Fig. 5A1–E1). However a slight reduction in the levels of NPIP (Fig. 5C1), NSAR and NPYR were indicated.
This reduction may be the result of increased competition for the nitrosating species because more NO was bound to the added haem. Slight indications of calcium counteracting this inhibiting effect were observed for NHPRO (Fig. 5A2), NDMA and NPYR. The levels of NHPRO and NMTCA were found to increase significantly by adding Fe (III) (Fig. 5A1 and E1). An increase was also indicated for NTCA (Fig. 5D1) and NPYR. For the remaining NA no effect was observed by adding Fe(III). Erythorbic acid was also in this setup found to reduce the NA levels (Fig. 5A1–E1) except for NDMA and NPYR. The reduction was found to be significant for NHPRO, NPRO, NPIP and NTCA. Interaction between iron and erythorbic acid was indicated for NTCA and NMTCA, though only significantly for NMTCA (Fig. 5E2). Addition of Fe(III) cancelled the otherwise inhibiting effect of erythorbic acid (Fig. 5D2 and E2).