They completed the MST and comparator questionnaires: Disability

They completed the MST and comparator questionnaires: Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH), Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire Alisertib cost (CPGQ), Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy questionnaire with subscales for fatigue (FACT F) and breast cancer (FACT B 4). Bilateral combined shoulder ranges of motion were compared (upward reach; hand behind back) and percentage upper limb volume difference (%LVD =/>10% diagnosed as lymphedema) measured with the vertical perometer (400T).

Results: 613 of 617 participants completed questionnaires (mean age 62.3 years, SD 10.0; mean

time since treatment 63.0 months, SD 46.6) and 417 completed objective testing. Morbidity prevalence was estimated as 35.8%, 21.9%, 19.8% and 34.4% for fatigue, impaired upper limb function, lymphedema and pain respectively. Comparing those self-reporting the presence or absence of each type of morbidity, statistically significant differences in comparator variables supported validity of the MST. Statistically significant correlations resulted between MST scores focussing

on impact AZD0530 order of morbidity, and comparator variables that reflect function and quality of life.

Conclusion: Analysis supports the validity of all four short-forms of the MST as providing indications of both presence of morbidity and impacts on participants’ lives. This may facilitate early and appropriate referral for intervention. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: White matter hyper-intensities (WMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cerebro-vascular risk factors including plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) may result in WMHs.

This study examined the association between tHcy and WMHs, and their effects on cognitive functions in AD patients over a two-year follow-up period.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven AD patients with a clinical dementia rating of 1 or 2 were enrolled and follow-up for two years. Fedratinib ic50 tHcy, biochemistry tests, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were collected. WMHs were visually rated on brain MRI and classified as deep white matter hyper-intensities (DWMHs) or peri-ventricular white matter hyper-intensities (PWMHs). MMSEs were performed every six months to survey cognitive decline.

Results: In the cross sectional study, tHcy was significantly associated with total WMHs especially in DWMHs even after adjusting for age and other cerebrovascular risk factors. Initial MMSE was inversely correlated with WMH severity but not with tHcy level. In the longitudinal analysis, no differences were found either in tHcy or WMHs score in the two AD groups defined by the cognitive decline rate.

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