Indeed, microbial exposure in early life may have long-lasting ef

Indeed, microbial exposure in early life may have long-lasting effects into later life, as suggested by an epidemiological association with prevention of diseases such as IBD and

Selleck Adriamycin asthma [34, 35]. Similarly, delayed colonization of GF mice was shown to result in increased morbidity in experimental models of IBD and allergic asthma [36]. The modulation of epithelial immunity by commensal microorganisms has been unveiled by recent studies (reviewed in [37]). Many mechanisms have been described by which the intestinal microbiota is essential for the full development and function of mucosal immunity. For example, in mammals the full maturation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) and the recruitment of IgA-secreting plasma cells and activated T cells to mucosal sites has been shown to require microbiota-derived signals acting after birth on both epithelial cells and Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor DCs [38]. In vertebrates, many products of the commensal microbiota

and of pathogens alike, acting in part on the innate receptors of the TLR and NOD-like receptor families, affect the barrier immunity via pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The role of TLRs and IL-1 family receptors in controlling the gut microbial ecology has clearly been shown in mice deficient for the common adapter molecules MyD88, in which microbiota-regulated genes have altered expression [39]. MyD88 signaling is required for the epithelial expression of antimicrobial genes, such as Reg3β and Reg3γ, and MyD88 deficiency has been shown to result in an alteration in bacterial composition and diversity [39, 40]. In this review, with only a few exceptions, we focus on the role of bacteria in the regulation of immunity and cancer. However, it is important to remember that, in addition to bacteria, the microbiota is composed of archaea,

fungi, viruses, and bacteriophages, and that dysbiosis is most often associated Selleck Verteporfin with changes in the reciprocal composition of the different members of the microbiota. For example, in antibiotics-treated animals, the overgrowth of fungal pathobionts, such as Candida, is often observed [41]. Furthermore, in MyD88-deficient animals raised in conventional facilities, norovirus infection and the reactivation of infectious endogenous retroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus, have been shown to be common occurrences, and result in alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses [39, 42]. With some exceptions, the role of components of the microbiota other than bacteria in regulating immunity and inflammation has received only limited attention, and it is likely that the study of these components will drive some reinterpretation of the mechanisms explaining the role of the microbiota in immunity [41, 43]. Several mechanisms by which different microbial species regulate immunity at different barrier surfaces have been well characterized.

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