A high number and variety of microbes, including a high proportion of fungal pathogens, were detected.”
“Purpose: Paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters inhibit restenosis after coronary and peripheral angioplasty (PCI,PTA). The aim of this study was to investigate paclitaxel plasma levels and laboratory parameters following PTA with paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) in peripheral arteries.\n\nMaterials and Methods: This single treatment arm, multicenter study included
14 patients with Rutherford stage 1 – 5 with occlusions of up to 5 cm or >= 70% diameter stenosis of the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries (SFA, PA). PTA was performed using up to three PCB catheters. The paclitaxel plasma levels and safety laboratory EPZ-6438 in vitro parameters were determined by collecting blood samples pre-intervention,
immediately post-intervention, at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 hours and 1 and 4 weeks post-intervention (p.i.). Vital signs were monitored to assess clinical safety.\n\nResults: PTA was performed successfully in all patients. Paclitaxel plasma levels were always below a level and duration known to cause systemic side effects. A mean peak paclitaxel plasma level (40 ng/ml) was reached immediately p.i. and decreased rapidly below detectable levels in more than half of the patients already 2 hours p.i. The paclitaxel plasma concentrations returned to values below detectable levels at 24 hours p.i. EVP4593 NF-��B inhibitor in all patients. Laboratory parameters and vital signs did not give any reason for safety concerns. No adverse events associated with balloon PXD101 mw coating were observed.\n\nConclusion:
The results of 14 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease show no systemic bioavailability of paclitaxel >24 hours after PTA with one or more PCB catheters, indicating that the PCB catheter is safe with regard to possible systemic effects.”
“Background/Aim: Unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer with very slow tumour growth rate does not necessarily require for strong short-interval chemotherapy. In the present study, we administered monthly chemotherapy and aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the specific treatment schedule in patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer with slow tumour growth rate. Patients and Methods: Since 2009, at our Institution, patients’ whose serum carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) values on the treatment day were not higher than those before initial chemotherapy, and patients who did not wish to undergo intensive chemotherapy, were prospectively scheduled for specific chemotherapy. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 10 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer who received monthly chemotherapy were enrolled in the current study.
(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nysius caledoniae Distant, 1920 is recorded for the first
time as an alien introduced species in New Zealand. Collection with young stages indicates that it may already have established itself in Auckland. Characters of the species enabling its identification Hippo pathway inhibitor are presented. The pest-status of N. caledoniae, N. vinitor Bergroth, 1891, and N. huttoni White, 1878, is reviewed. A key to the genera of Orsillidae in New Zealand is provided, along with a revised key to the species of Nysius in that country.”
“This discussion examines how speaker pauses, both filled and silent, are keyed to functions within a conversation and to functions
within narration. In Alzheimer’s discourse, pause-fillers can be both placeholders and hesitation markers; they may be ohs and ums or longer formulaic phrases. Extracts from the speech of 4 older women from the United States and from New Zealand are reviewed for changes in syntactic complexity, for retention of story components, and for pauses. The extracts illustrate these functions for silent pauses: as word-finding; as planning at word, phrase, and narrative component Selleckchem Pevonedistat levels; and as pragmatic compensation as other interactional and narrative skills decrease.”
“Intracellular inclusions containing chlamydia-like organisms are frequently observed in the gill epithelial cells of Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar L., cultured in fresh water in Ireland. In this study, the causative agent was identified in four separate freshwater sites, using 16s rRNA sequencing, as ‘Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola’. Histopathology and real-time (RT) PCR were used to further assess infections. The prevalence of infection ranged from 75-100% between sites and infection intensity was highly variable. No significant lesions were associated with these infections. As a diagnostic tool, RT-PCR proved marginally more sensitive than this website histopathology. The fate of ‘Candidatus Clavochlamydia salmonicola’ in Atlantic salmon post-seawater transfer was investigated in a 12-week marine longitudinal study. Both RT-PCR and histopathological examination indicate that the organism disappears from the gills 4-6 weeks post-transfer.”
“Stimuli responsive pH- and temperature-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery systems, as those based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and itaconic acid (IA), have been attracting much of the attention of the scientific community nowadays, especially in the field of drug release. By adjusting comonomer composition, the matrix is enabled to protect the incorporated protein in the highly acidic environment of upper gastrointestinal tract and deliver it in the neutral or slightly basic region of the lower intestine.
In particular, the carboxylic acid groups on a polymer containing L-aspartic acid units were converted to N-hydroxysuccinimidyl esters, providing a useful template for further derivatization. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47:
“Background This study cross-validated the factor structure of the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S) in a cohort of patients with mental illness in southern LY294002 clinical trial Taiwan. The measurement invariance of the SSS-S factor structure across mental illness and gender was also examined. Methods The sample consisted of 161 patients with schizophrenia (51.6% males; mean age +/- SD = 40.53 +/- 10.38 years) and 189 patients with other mental illnesses (34.9% males; mean age = 46.52 +/- 11.29 years). Results The internal reliability (total score: alpha = 0.948) and concurrent validity (r = 0.335 to 0.457 with Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale; r = -0.447 to -0.556 with WHOQOL-BREF)
of the SSS-S were both satisfactory, and the results Selleckchem Nepicastat verified that the factor structure in our Taiwan sample (RMSEA = 0.0796, CFA = 0.992) was the same as that of the Hong Kong population. In addition, the results supported the measurement invariance of the SSS-S across mental illness (Delta RMSEAs = -0.0082 to -0.0037,Delta CFAs = 0.000) and gender (Delta RMSEAs = -0.0054 to -0.0008,Delta CFAs = -0.001 to 0.000). Conclusion Future studies can use the SSS-S to compare self-stigma between genders and between patients with different kinds of mental Dactolisib PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor illnesses.”
“Radiosurgery for glioblastoma is limited to the development of resistance, allowing tumor cells to survive and initiate tumor recurrence. Based on our previous work that coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide following radiosurgery selectively induced thrombosis in cerebral arteriovenous malformations, achieving thrombosis of 69% of the capillaries
and 39% of medium sized vessels, we hypothesized that a rapid and selective shutdown of the capillaries in glioblastoma vasculature would decrease the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, reducing tumor growth, preventing intracranial hypertension, and improving life expectancy. Glioblastoma was formed by implantation of GL261 cells into C57Bl/6 mouse brain. Mice were intravenously injected tissue factor, lipopolysaccharide, a combination of both, or placebo 24 hours after radiosurgery. Control mice received both agents after sham irradiation. Coadministration of tissue factor and lipopolysaccharide led to the formation of thrombi in up to 87 +/- 8% of the capillaries and 46 +/- 4% of medium sized vessels within glioblastoma. The survival rate of mice in this group was 80% versus no survivor in placebo controls 30 days after irradiation. Animal body weight increased with time in this group (r = 0.88, P = 0.0001).
“We present design of novel low-power homonuclear dipolar recoupling experiments for magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR studies of proteins. The pulse sequences are developed by combining principles of symmetry-based dipolar recoupling and optimal
control-based pulse sequence design. The scaffold of the pulse sequences is formed by known CN-type recoupling sequences, while the intrinsic sequence elements are designed using optimal control. This procedure allows for the development of high-performance pulse sequences demanding significantly weaker rf fields than previous symmetry-based pulse sequences while compensating for rf inhomogeneity and providing excitation over relevant ranges of chemical shifts for biological applications. The new recoupling experiments,
check details referred to as optimal control CN ((OC)CN), are demonstrated numerically and experimentally by two-dimensional (2D) (13)C-(13)C and three-dimensional (3D) (15)N- (13)C- (13)C chemical shift correlation experiments on uniformly (13)C, (15)N-labeled ubiquitin. Exploiting the double-quantum, band-selective dipolar recoupling properties of the (OC)CN experiments, we demonstrate significant sensitivity enhancement for 2D and 3D correlation spectra showing exclusively one- or two-bond correlations. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3157737]“
“Global warming is already causing salinization of freshwater ecosystems located in semi-arid regions, including YH25448 clinical trial Turkey. Daphnids, which are important grazers on phytoplankton and a major food source for fish and invertebrates, are sensitive to not only changes in salinity levels, but also presence of predators. In this study, the interactive effect of salinity toxicity (abiotic factor) with predation pressure mimicked by the fish-exuded kairomone (biotic factor) and the effect of salt acclimation on daphnids were investigated. Impacts of these stressors on daphnid survival, life history and
molecular profile were observed. The presence FK228 mouse of the kairomone antagonistically alters the effect of salinity, as observed from the 24- and 48-h LC50 values and survival results. Molecular findings provided solid evidence to this antagonism at even lower salt concentrations, for which antagonism was not evident with organismal data. Fish predation counterbalances the negative effect of salinity in terms of reserve energy density. Therefore, it is important to investigate multiple stressor effects in ecotoxicological bioassays complemented with molecular techniques. The single effect of increasing salinity resulted in increased mortality, decreased fecundity, and slower somatic growth in Daphnia, despite their acclimation to salinity.
Of these, 81 were receiving statins and/or fibrates as LLT and 31 were participating in a non-pharmacologic therapeutic program FK228 manufacturer (NPT) of diet and exercise therapy. The mean age for the total population was 56.7 years (20-78): the LLT group 58.6 and NPT group 51.9 years. Women comprised 53% of the LLT group and 58% of the NPT. No significant differences in baseline lipid profiles, CK level, BMI, waist measurement, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen use, frequency of myalgias, SF-36 PF or mHAQ scores were observed between groups. On comparison of gender groups, we ob-served that men receiving LLT had significantly better
SF36 PF (p = 0.037) than men on NPT. There were no differences in SF-36 PF or mHAQ scores between selleck chemicals llc groups for females.\n\nConclusion: We found no adverse effects of LLT on physical functioning or quality of life. Indeed, men treated with LLT had significantly better SF-36 PF scores than men treated non-pharmacologically.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress status and antioxidant enzyme activities in infertile men’s semen and to determine their relationship with spermatozoa characteristics. Four groups of infertile men, normozoospermic (n = 9), azoospermic (n = 13), oligoasthenozoospermic (n = 38), and
asthenozoospermic (n = 42), were tested for malonaldialdehyde (MDA) concentration and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in semen using spectrophotometric methods. We found that MDA levels in semen and SOD activity in seminal plasma (SP) were significantly higher in oligoasthenozoospermic and asthenozoospermic groups compared with normozoospermic group. In contrast, the mean values of CAT activity were not
significantly different in all groups. We found positive correlations between semen MDA concentration and SOD activity (P < 0.01). MDA levels in sperm pellet and in SP were also positively correlated with mobility grade b (P < 0.01), acrosome anomalies (P < 0.01), and residual cytoplasmic droplets (P < 0.05). In contrast, SOD activity in SP was negatively correlated with sperm concentration and normal morphology (P < 0.05). Similarly, CAT activity in SP was negatively correlated with sperm and leukocyte concentrations (P < GDC-0068 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that the evaluation of oxidative status and antioxidant defenses may be taken as an important tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 23:99-104, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) have been suggested to be useful markers of recent thymic output and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was thought to have an adverse effect on thymic output. On the other hand, TREC concentrations are diluted with T cell expansion. The C-type lectin superfamily inhibitory receptor CD94 expression on T cells might be a consequence of CD8 T cell expansion.
These profiles are sampled from dune crests, away from high concentrations of animals and without
termite mounds. Given low-density animal grazing is unlikely to contribute consistent spot-scale nitrate over decades, these profiles give an initial estimate of naturally-produced concentrations. This insight is important for the management of the Stampriet Basin and wider Kalahari groundwater. This study expands our knowledge about elevated nitrate in dryland USZs, demonstrating that it can occur as pulses, probably in response to transient vegetation cover and that it is not limited to long-residence time USZs with very limited downward moisture flux (recharge). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this work is to compare INCB024360 the thinning patterns of the ganglion cell inner-plexiform layer (GCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) as measured using Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in patients with visual field (VF) defects that respect AZD9291 datasheet the vertical meridian. Twenty eyes of 11 patients with VF defects that respect the vertical meridian were enrolled retrospectively. The thicknesses
of the macular GCIPL and pRNFL were measured using Cirrus HD-OCT. The 5 and 1 % thinning area index (TAI) was calculated as the proportion of abnormally thin sectors at the 5 and 1 % probability level within the area corresponding to the affected VF. The 5 and 1 % TAI were compared between the GCIPL and pRNFL measurements. The color-coded GCIPL deviation map showed a characteristic vertical thinning pattern of the GCIPL, which is also seen in the VF of patients with brain lesions. The 5 and 1 % TAI were significantly higher in the GCIPL measurements than in the pRNFL measurements (all p smaller than 0.01). Macular GCIPL analysis clearly visualized a characteristic topographic pattern of retinal ganglion cell (RGC)
loss in patients with VF defects that respect the vertical BKM120 cost meridian, unlike pRNFL measurements. Macular GCIPL measurements provide more valuable information than pRNFL measurements for detecting the loss of RGCs in patients with retrograde degeneration of the optic nerve fibers.”
“To evaluate clinical and imaging features of cancer recurrence in reconstructed breasts following skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) or nipple areolar skin-sparing mastectomy (NASSM). This study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In this retrospective study, we included patients with pathologically confirmed recurrent cancer who had transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after SSM or NASSM and whose follow-up radiological studies were available. Each patient’s demographic data, imaging studies and clinical outcomes were reviewed.
\n\nDesign: An individual diet model was specifically developed for each adult participating in the French national INCA (Enquete Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) dietary survey (n = 1171). Starting from each individual weekly food intake (observed diets), an isocaloric modeled diet was designed by linear programming to simultaneously meet the French Vorinostat mw nutrient recommendations for
32 nutrients while deviating the least from the observed food intake. Modeled diets were paired with observed diets for statistical comparison.\n\nResults: A new nutritionally adequate diet was obtained for each individual. In half the modeled diets, <5 of the foods usually consumed were replaced. The amount of foods selected in the modeled diets varied from individual to individual, and this variability followed that found in observed diets. Fruit, vegetables, grains, legumes, dried fruit, unsalted nuts, fresh dairy products, and fish were increased in modeled
diets. Fatty fish and walnuts were added to each modeled diet. In contrast, red meats, deli meats, cheese, mixed INK1197 dishes, and salted snacks were decreased. Sweets were also decreased but to a lesser extent.\n\nConclusions: This new individual diet modeling approach offers the possibility of translating nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices for all individuals from a representative population. The results showed that nutrient needs can be fulfilled in many different ways, depending on initial individual food patterns.
Am J Clin Nutr 2010:91:421-30.”
“BACKGROUND: Advanced-stage osteonecrosis and a large area of necrotic bone are known risk factors for failure of transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy of the hip in patients with osteonecrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are other risk factors for failure of this osteotomy.\n\nMETHODS: One hundred and five patients (113 hips) underwent an anterior transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis and were followed for a mean of 51.3 months AZD6738 solubility dmso postoperatively. Radiographic failure was defined as secondary collapse or osteoarthritic change. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess factors associated with secondary collapse and osteophyte formation. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to estimate survival.\n\nRESULTS: Secondary collapse occurred in twenty-seven hips (24%), and fourteen hips (12%) were converted to a total hip arthroplasty. At the time of the most recent follow-up, the hip scores according to the system of Merle d’Aubigne et al. ranged from 6 to 18 points (mean, 15.8 points). Multivariate analysis showed that the stage of the necrosis (III or greater) (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 7.24), age of the patient (forty years or older) (hazard ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.
In addition, this reaggregation system may be a useful method for regenerative dentistry, since tooth and periodontal tissue can be produced en bloc.”
“Background: Otolaryngologic conditions are common among HIV-1-infected children. In this study, we provide data regarding prevalence of pediatric HIV-1 otolaryngologic manifestations in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods: We conducted population-based, prospective, multicenter pediatric HIV-1 surveillance among 276 children with perinatally acquired HIV-1 from 1988 to 2009. All Center for Disease Control (CDC) mild, moderate and severe otolaryngologic conditions were evaluated. Results: CDC-defined, HIV-1-related otolaryngologic conditions among the 276 children were: 103, mild; 50, moderate and 20, severe. The majority [23.3% (24/103), 40.0% (20/50) and 50% (10/20)] of mild, moderate and severe diagnoses, respectively, Selleck Nutlin 3 occurred in the first year of life, with
53.4% (55/103), 66.0% (33/50) and 70% (14/20), respectively, occurring in the first 2 years of life. The most frequent diagnoses were otitis media [21% (58/276)] and oropharyngeal thrush [17.4% (48/276)]. There was a temporal decline by cohort in prevalence of mild and moderate otolaryngologic diagnoses which was significant for mild conditions: Selleck BVD-523 90, pre-ART cohort and 13, ART cohort (P smaller than 0.001) and moderate conditions: 47, pre-ART and 3, ART (P smaller than 0.001). Conclusions: In our study, many CDC-defined, HIV-related KU-55933 cell line otolaryngologic conditions occur in the first 2 years of life.
Over 22 years of longitudinal follow up, there was a significant decline in prevalence of CDC-defined otolaryngologic conditions by temporal cohorts when comparing pre-ART and ART eras. This finding supports early ART administration to decrease morbidity in HIV-1-positive infants and children as well as current US and World Health Organization guidelines to prevent early HIV disease progression.”
“The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations.
\n\nMETHODS: Between January 2007 and Aug 2008, twenty histopathologically diagnosed esophageal cancer patients underwent 25 PET/CT scans (three patients had two scans and one patient had three scans) for restaging after surgical AZD2014 cost resection and radiotherapy. The standard reference for tumor recurrence was histopathologic confirmation or clinical follow-up for at least ten months after F-18-FDG PET/CT examinations.\n\nRESULTS: Tumor recurrence was confirmed histopathologically in seven of the 20 patients (35%) and by clinical and radiological follow-up in 13 (65%). F-18-FDG PET/CT was positive in 14 patients
(68.4%) and negative in six (31.6%). F-18-FDG PET/CT was true positive in 11 patients, false
positive in three and true negative in six. Overall, the accuracy of F-18-FDG PET/CT was 85%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, and positive predictive value (PPV) was 78.6%. The three false positive PET/CT findings comprised chronic inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes (n = 2) and anastomosis inflammation (n = 1). PET/CT demonstrated distant metastasis in 10 patients. F-18-FDG PET/CT imaging-guided salvage treatment in nine patients was performed. Treatment regimens were changed in 12 (60%) patients after introducing F-18-FDG PET/CT into their conventional post-treatment follow-up program.\n\nCONCLUSION: MCC950 Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor Whole body F-18-FDG PET/CT is effective in detecting relapse of esophageal cancer
after surgical resection and radiotherapy. It could also have important clinical impact on the management of esophageal cancer, influencing both clinical restaging and salvage treatment of patients. (C) 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. learn more All rights reserved.”
“Immune mediated neuropathies are uncommon but important to diagnose because they are potentially treatable. This chapter summarizes the clinical approach to diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and related neuropathies which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: The prevention and potential reversal of interstitial fibrosis is a central strategy for the treatment of progressive renal disease. This strategy requires a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic processes involved in progressive renal fibrosis.\n\nAreas covered: The developmental processes in which Wnt (combination of ‘wingless’ and ‘INT’)/frizzled signaling is involved is discussed in this review, including cell fate determination, cell polarity, tissue patterning and control of cell proliferation. These pathways are also active in the adult where they play key roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, wound repair and chronic tissue damage.
(C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“A novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was recently identified in Mexico. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library cost Some cases of infection with neurological complications have been reported to date. We report a case of acute necrotizing
encephalopathy associated with the novel H1N1 virus in a 2-year-old European girl who suddenly developed fever, seizures, and altered mental status. Brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral symmetrical lesions of the insulae, thalami, geniculate bodies, and pons tegmentum suggestive of an acute necrotizing encephalopathy. An involvement of meninges and spinal cord was observed configuring an acute necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis. ANN NEUROL 2010;68:111-114″
“Variants of the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene (FABP2) are associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome. selleck Relevant FABP2 promoter polymorphisms c.-80_-79insT, c.-136_-132delAGTAG, c.-168_-166delAAGinsT, c.-260G>A, c.-471G>A, and c.-778G>T result in two haplotypes A and B. Activation of haplotypes by rosiglitazone Stimulated PPAR-gamma/RXR alpha leads to 2-fold higher activity of haplotype B than A. As shown by chimeric FABP2 promoter constructs, the higher responsiveness
of FABP2 haplotype B is mainly but not solely determined by polymorphism c.-471G>A. As shown by EMSA and promoter-reporter assays, Oct-1 interacts with the -471 region of FABP2 Promoters, induces the activities of both FABP2 promoter haplotypes and abolishes the different activities of haplotypes induced by rosiglitazone activated PPAR gamma/RXR alpha. In conclusion, our findings suggest a functional role of PPAR gamma/RXR alpha and Oct-1 in the regulation of the FABP2 gene. (C) 2008
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Benzene is a major contaminant in various environments, but the mechanisms behind its biodegradation under strictly anoxic conditions are not yet entirely clear. Here we analyzed a benzene-degrading, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture originating from a benzene-contaminated aquifer by a metagenome-based functional metaproteomic approach, using protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP). check details The time-resolved, quantitative analysis of carbon fluxes within the community supplied with either C-13-labeled benzene or C-13-labeled carbonate yielded different functional groups of organisms, with their peptides showing specific time dependencies of C-13 relative isotope abundance indicating different carbon utilization. Through a detailed analysis of the mass spectrometric (MS) data, it was possible to quantify the utilization of the initial carbon source and the metabolic intermediates. The functional groups were affiliated to Clostridiales, Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi.