Thermogravemetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calori

Thermogravemetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess the thermal properties of the functionalized LDPE. Suitable reaction scheme was proposed. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2252-2261, 2011″
“Background: In malarious areas of the world, a higher proportion of the population has blood group O than in non-malarious areas. This is probably due to a survival advantage conferred either by an attenuating

effect on the course of or reduction in the risk of infection by plasmodial parasites. Here, the association between ABO blood group and incidence of placental malaria was assessed in order to determine the possible influence of the former on the latter.

Methods: Data from a study in Lambarene, Gabon, and data from three previously learn more published reports of studies in The Gambia, Malawi and Sudan, were compiled and compared. ABO blood groups were cross-tabulated with placental malaria stratified by parity. Odds ratios (OR), stratified by parity, were calculated for the outcome, placental parasitaemia, and compared between blood group O vs. non-O mothers in all four studies. Random effects meta-analysis of data from individual studies from areas

with perennial hyper/holoendemic transmission was performed.

Results: In Gabon, the odds ratio (OR) for active placental parasitaemia in mothers with group O was 0.3 (95% CI 0.05-1.8) for primiparae and 0.7 (95% CI 0.3-1.8) for multiparae. The OR for primiparae in the published study from The Gambia was 3.0 (95% CI 1.2-7.3) and, in Malawi, 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.3). In the Sudanese study, no OR for primiparae could be calculated. The OR for placental parasitaemia in group O multiparae was 0.8 (95% CI 0.3-1.7) in the Gambia, 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.0) in Malawi and 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-1.8) in Sudan. Combining data from the three studies conducted in hyper-/holo-endemic settings (Gambia, Malawi, Gabon) the OR for placental malaria in blood group O multiparae was 0.65 (95% CI 0.44-0.96) and for primiparae

GW4869 chemical structure 1.70 (95% CI 0.67-4.33).

Conclusion: Studies conducted in The Gambia and Malawi suggest that blood group O confers a higher risk of active placental infection in primiparae, but a significantly lower risk in multiparae. These findings were not confirmed by the study from Gabon, in which statistically non-significant trends for reduced risk of placental parasitaemia in those with blood group O, regardless of parity, were observed.”
“Over the years, in vitro Franz diffusion experiments have evolved into one of the most important methods for researching transdermal drug administration. Unfortunately, this type of testing often yields permeation data that suffer from poor reproducibility. Moreover, this feature frequently occurs when synthetic membranes are used as barriers, in which case biological tissue-associated variability has been removed as an artefact of total variation.

In conclusion, gender differences observed in the treatment of at

In conclusion, gender differences observed in the treatment of atrial fibrillation cannot be fully explained by differences in clinical characteristics between men and women in the population. Full English text available from: (C) 2010 Sociedad Espanola de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Extremes in micronutrient intakes are common in HIV-infected patients in developed countries and may affect the

progression of atherosclerosis in this population.

Objective: We completed a cross-sectional study examining the association between serum micronutrient concentrations and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in a cohort of HIV-infected adults.

Design: We measured serum selenium, zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin E concentrations as well as selleck inhibitor carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in 298 Nutrition for Healthy Living participants. We assessed cardiovascular disease risk factors, c-IMT, and CAC for each micronutrient tertile by using a chi-square test for binary variables and analysis of variance for continuous variables. We performed multivariate regression of c-IMT and CAC with each micronutrient

with adjustment for HIV-related and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Results: In the multivariate analysis, the highest tertile of serum vitamin E concentration was associated with higher selleck products common and internal c-IMT and CAC scores (P < 0.05 for c-IMT and CAC). Participants with higher vitamin E concentrations learn more were more likely to have detectable CAC (50% compared with 44% compared with 67% for tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P = 0.004) and common c-IMT >0.8 mm (5% compared with 4% compared with 17% for tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P = 0.002). Other than vitamin E, micronutrients had no association with markers of atherosclerosis.

Conclusions: Our study showed that elevated serum vitamin E concentrations are associated with abnormal markers of atherosclerosis and may increase the risk of cardiovascular

complications in HIV-infected adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1213-9.”
“The authors used a national database to examine the prevalence and incidence of autism spectrum disorders. The National Health Research Institute provided a database of 1 000 000 random participants for study. A population-based sample of 372 642 aged younger than 18 was obtained as a dynamic cohort. Those study participants who had at least one service claim from 1996 to 2005 with a principal diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders were identified. The cumulative prevalence of autism spectrum disorders increased from 1.79 to 28.72 per 10 000 from 1996 to 2005. The annual incidence of autism spectrum disorders increased from 0.91 to 4.41 per 10 000 per year from 1997 to 2005.

Methods: Twenty patients with histopathologically confirmed recta

Methods: Twenty patients with histopathologically confirmed rectal cancer (Stage II-III) were enrolled in the study. Radiotherapy of 50 Gy was delivered in 25 fractions of 2 Gy, one fraction/day,

five fractions/week, for 5 weeks. Oxaliplatin 55 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously for 60 minutes on Day 1 every 2 weeks, and tegafur-uracil 350 mg/m(2) was given orally everyday during the whole radiotherapy selleckchem course, including holidays. Surgery was scheduled 6 weeks after completion of the preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was to determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate after this neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The secondary endpoint was to determine the treatment-related toxicity profile, local control, DFS,

OS, and time to metastasis.

Results: All patients underwent a complete course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. There was no local recurrence during the study period. The complete resection rate was 20/20 (100%) and the close resection margin rate was 3/20 (15%). The pCR rate was 8/20 (40%). During chemoradiotherapy, the most frequent toxicity was diarrhea 9/20 (45% of patients, grade 2 in 3/20, 15%). There were Rabusertib research buy no grade 3 or higher hematologic or non-hematologic events or treatment-related deaths.

The 3-year OS and DFS rates were 94.1% and 78.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with oxaliplatin and tegafur-uracil was well-tolerated and achieved an excellent pCR in our patients with locally advanced mid-to-lower rectal cancer. Copyright (C) 2013 Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved.”
“Globally, focus has been given on the development of neem oil based agrochemical formulations by replacing synthetic agro chemical based products. One of the main inert components in liquid agrochemical formulation is petroleum based solvent which has been replaced by water, by solubilizing the neem KU-57788 order oil which can act as a pesticide. These water based microemulsions may have the benefit of natural pesticide along with replacement of highly volatile petroleum solvents which create number of problems in agrochemical formulations like irritation to the eyes at the time of manufacturing and applications, phytotoxicity to the plants, etc. In this study we have demonstrated the feasibility of constructing pseudo ternary phase diagrams which are fully diluted with water.

Four radiologists (two residents without experience in cranial CT

Four radiologists (two residents without experience in cranial CT and two consultants) independently evaluated all cases. Each radiologist

reported findings in 100 patients by using transverse sections only and findings in the other 100 patients this website by using the unfolded view. The radiologists were blinded to patient names, and patient and group orders were randomized. The results were compared with a standard of reference established by two experts from all prior reading results, all reconstructions, and high-spatial-resolution multiplanar reformats. Logistic regression with repeated measurements was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The experts found 63 fractures in 30 patients. When transverse sections only were used, the mean patient-based fracture detection rate was 43% (13 of 30) for inexperienced and 70% (21 of 30) for experienced readers; with curved MIPs, the rates were 80% (24 of 30) and 87% (26 of 30), respectively. Overall sensitivity was higher with curved MIPs (P < .001); specificity was higher with transverse sections (P < .001).

Conclusion: Curved Torin 2 chemical structure MIPs enable a significantly higher fracture detection rate than transverse sections. They also considerably close the experience gap in fracture detection

rate between residents and experts. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“We report the first observation of ultraviolet superfluorescence (SF) from oxygen vacancies in WO3-x nanowires at room temperature, and of picosecond-scale energy transfer between emission centers (oxygen vacancies) in a plane. A theoretical development from Dicke’s model leads to general formulation for a two-dimensional system, and is applied to explain the energy transfer process. The results demonstrate a possibility to generate

ultrafast pulse of ultraviolet light through SF from a localized ensemble of defect states. (C) IPI-145 manufacturer 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3514078]“
“Aims: The aim of this analysis is to investigate the mean incremental costs and life expectancy associated with two first-line treatments for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Korea and Taiwan; bevacizumab plus cisplatin and gemcitabine (BevCG) and cisplatin plus pemetrexed (CP).

Methods: A health economic (area under curve) model with three health states was developed to assess health outcomes (life-years gained [LYG]), direct costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were derived from randomized clinical trials and used in an indirect comparison in order to estimate their cost effectiveness. A life-time horizon was used. Costs and outcomes were discounted yearly by 5% in Korea and by 3% in Taiwan.

Results: The incremental LYG for the BevCG patients compared with patients treated with CP were 1.10 (13.2 months) in Korea and 1.19 (14.3 months) in Taiwan.

Conclusions: The findings indicate

non-daily smoking is p

Conclusions: The findings indicate

non-daily smoking is predictive of increased, problematic alcohol use among young adults longitudinally and they support increasing evidence that non-daily smokers represent an important population. Future research should be conducted to continue developing targeted interventions. Early treatments for smoking behavior might have a beneficial effect on reducing the development of problematic patterns of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Nylon 6 [N(6)], nylon 6,6 [N(6,6)], and their blends at different clay loadings were prepared. The mix was melted and injected into strip-shaped samples. Mechanical and thermal analyses were performed to investigate the effect of blending and the incorporated clay on the mechanical and thermal properties. Selleck EGFR inhibitor Enhancements in the Young’s ON-01910 price modulus and hardness were obtained for all of the nanocomposites, with a 55% increase in Young’s modulus after the addition of 6 wt % nanoclay, although the improvement in tensile strength depended on the blend ratio, with greatest effects on the 50% N(6)/50% N(6,6) blend with increases of 44 and 59% for 2 and 4% clay loadings, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis showed an

enhancement in the thermal properties in the 50% N(6)/50% N(6,6) blend at 2% clay loading, and the blend exhibited ductile behavior at this loading. Increases in the crystallization peak temperatures of 1015 degrees in N(6,6) and the two blends 30% N(6)/70% N(6,6) and 50% N(6)/50% N(6,6) were observed after the addition of the clay. The nanoclay enhanced the -/beta-form crystals in N(6) and N(6,6) neat polymers and also in the blends. Fourier transform infrared

spectroscopy FT-IR revealed the formation of hydrogen bonding and the possible formation of ionic bonds between the polymers and the nanoclay, which resulted BIX 01294 research buy in enhancements in the mechanical properties of the blends. The distribution of the nanoclay in the blend was well dispersed, as shown by X-ray diffraction analysis. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Carpolobia lutea was evaluated in mice and rats using the mouse writhing, tail flick and formalin induced pain tests. Analgesic studies were performed using three models; mouse writhing assay, formalin test and tail flick assay. The extract (1500 to 2500 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of the second phase in the formalin pain model, while the antinoceptive effect was not produced in the first phase. The extract also showed a dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced abdominal writhings. The tail flick latency was not enhanced by the extract. Oral administration of the extract up to 2500 mg/kg did not produce any toxic effects in the acute toxicity studies in mice.

The analysis is carried out through the derivation of the nonline

The analysis is carried out through the derivation of the nonlinear dispersion relation for the four-wave modulational instability. An expression for the growth rate of the instability including the quantum effect due to Bohm potential has been obtained from the nonlinear dispersion relation. The quantum effect is observed to play a vital role in the four-wave scattering process. For a particular set of parameters, the quantum effect enhances the growth rate of the modulational instability by find more 37% compared to the growth rate predicted by the classical theory.”
“Posthysterectomy ectopic pregnancy

is an unusual condition that may present soon after hysterectomy or several years later. Similarly, although tubal ligation is a widespread method of contraception, tubal pregnancy after tubal ligation is not common either. If any of these conditions are rare, having an ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy and tubal ligation is even

more infrequent and only one of such cases was found in our review of the literature. We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient, with history of bilateral tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy that looked for medical attention due to abdominal pain. A pregnancy test was positive and a transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated the presence of a gestational sac at the vaginal cuff, adjacent to the ovary. An exploratory laparotomy showed a ruptured ectopic pregnancy located in the distal portion of the left fallopian tube. The occurrence of an ectopic pregnancy several years following S3I-201 tubal ligation and vaginal hysterectomy is a rare phenomenon that appears to be secondary to a fistulous LY2835219 mouse connection into the peritoneal cavity.”
“The aim of the study was to carry out a serological survey of Encephalitozoon

cuniculi in commercially reared rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculi) in Veneto region (Northern Italy). Two hundred and sixty blood samples from 13 farms were examined by a carbon immunoassay (CIA test) to detect the presence of antibodies anti-E. cuniculi. All sampled rabbit does were clinically healthy. Seropositivity against E. cuniculi was found in 196/260 (75.4%) sera and in all the sampled farms (100%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the size of the farm had no statistically significant effect on E. cuniculi positivity; whereas rabbits of the hybrid X showed a higher seropositivity (p < 0.01) than rabbits belonging to other commercial breeds. Moreover, the age seemed to influence the seropositivity (p < 0.05). This serological survey showed a high prevalence of E. cuniculi infection suggesting that this parasite may be endemic in industrial rabbitries in Northern Italy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The efficiency of selective suppression of negative ions by photodetachment in a gas-filled radio frequency quadrupole ion cooler was investigated with a new detection method.

Summary of Background Data BMP has been shown to achieve better

Summary of Background Data. BMP has been shown to achieve better clinical outcomes in anterior lumbar interbody fusions procedures, which led to its Food and Drug Administration approval for this indication in 2002. Since then, significant off-label use has occurred, without a full description of the results.


WH-4-023 We searched the NIS for data relating to BMP administration or iliac crest bone grafting in a variety of spinal fusion procedures performed from 1993 to 2006, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification. The NIS is the largest all-payer inpatient care database, with demographic, outcome, and cost data from approximately eight million annual patient discharges throughout the United States. Demographics among patients treated with BMP versus iliac crest bone graft were compared to reduce the likelihood of bias in the analysis.

Results. BMP became applied more frequently in each type of spinal fusion procedure examined over our study period, with the exception of anterior lumbar interbody GSK2126458 datasheet fusions. Patients receiving iliac crest bone grafts versus BMP exhibited very similar demographic characteristics, including age, socioeconomic status, and type of health care setting. Although BMP typically increased the cost of the procedure itself, it improved outcomes and shorter hospital stays often provided a net benefit.

Conclusion. BMP is increasingly being used

in spinal fusion procedures, including ones for which it is not officially approved, because of the surgical and postsurgical benefits it provides. Given the morbidity that this may entail, monitoring

outcomes trends will help to inform guidelines for BMP use and ensure that its benefits continue to outweigh its costs.”
“A 21-yr-old man of blood type O receiving hemodialysis for IgA nephropathy underwent living-related ABO-incompatible (ABOI) renal transplantation from his mother, whose blood type is A. He was negative for flow cross-match, anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody, and anti-MICA antibody. Pre-treatment anti-A IgG titer was 1:256. Desensitization VX-661 research buy consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, methylprednisolone, rituximab, and plasmapheresis. He developed acute antibody rejection at day 2 post-transplant, which was successfully treated. After renal artery reconstruction surgery at day 91 for renovascular hypertension caused by renal artery stricture, the patient suffered from acute prostatitis, which subsequently induced type III acute antibody-mediated rejection. Even after recovery from the rejection after temporary hemodialysis, graft function progressively deteriorated and consecutive allograft biopsy showed progressive thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) without any evidence of donor-specific antibody other than anti-A antibody. The tacrolimus dose was kept low for fear of tacrolimus-induced TMA.

Blood samples were collected before and at several time points af

Blood samples were collected before and at several time points after intake. Whole-genome gene expression profiles of PBMCs were examined before and 6 h after intake of the PUFA and SFA shakes. In addition, ex vivo incubation of human PBMCs with different fatty acids was performed.

Results: Whole-genome expression AZD5153 mw analysis showed distinct differences between PUFA and SFA consumption. PUFA intake decreased the expression of genes in liver X receptor signaling, whereas SFA intake increased the expression of these genes. PUFA intake also increased the expression of genes related to cellular stress responses. MUFA intake had an intermediate effect

on several genes. Ex vivo experiments showed a direct effect of free fatty acids on PBMC gene expression.

Conclusion: This study showed that PBMCs can reveal fatty acid-specific gene expression profiles in young

healthy men after the consumption of different fatty acids, as evidenced by the opposite effects of PUFA and SFA intakes on the expression of genes involved in liver X receptor signaling. This trial was registered at as NCT01000194. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:208-17.”
“The natural frequency of nanotubes with consideration of surface effects is studied using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. This theory with long-range interactions revealing the nanoscale effect can be applied to study the vibration behavior of nanostructures. When the nonlocal effect is neglected in the analysis, the result is identical to the previous study which used a modified Timoshenko beam theory. According to the analysis, Stem Cell Compound Library the application of the modified Timoshenko beam theory for nanotubes would lead to an underprediction of the natural frequency. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3503853]“
“We evaluated the feasibility and incidence of hematological toxicity in a series of 39 breast cancer patients treated at our Institute with doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by docetaxel, using prophylactic G-CSF (Pegfilgrastim). We

prescribed G-CSF as secondary prophylaxis during the AC regimen and as primary prophylaxis during treatment with docetaxel. For the AC treatment, we recorded 6 cases of grade III (15.3%) and one case of grade IV (2.5%) neutropenia; we found one case of Grade IV anemia. For the docetaxel regimen, we registered one case of Grade IV (2.5%) neutropenia and three cases of Grade III leukopoenia without neutropenia. No patients experienced cardiac symptoms or baseline LVEF rate decrease. All patients concluded the programmed chemotherapy. Our experience shows the safety of docetaxel in combination with anthracyclines and the efficacy of prophylaxis with G-CSF in breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy.”
“Background: Our previous study indicated that soy protein with isoflavones lessened lumbar spine bone loss in midlife women.

Photocatalytic activity of the self-cleaning materials were teste

Photocatalytic activity of the self-cleaning materials were tested by measuring the photo-assisted degradation of methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellowish (EY) under ultraviolet-visible illumination. The results indicate that both of the ZnO-coated polyacrylonitrile and ZnO-coated wool fibers acquire photocatalytic activity toward dyes degradation. The photocatalytic activity of the treated fibers is maintained upon several numbers of photodegradation cycles. This facile and cheap preparation technique can be also applied to new polymeric Birinapant manufacturer fabrics to produce self-cleaning materials for industrial application. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3641-3650, 2011″
“Biologists can equip

animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background

of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS `rapid fixing’ technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency PXD101 ic50 PF-6463922 in vivo sampling associated with GPS locations. We present

alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.”
“We present spin pumping using a Heusler alloy Co(2)MnSi/Pt bilayer film. A spin current is produced by a ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. The pure spin current injected into the Pt layer from the Co(2)MnSi layer is detected by the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE), which converts the spin current into an electric current. We estimated a damping constant of the Co(2)MnSi/Pt bilayer film from an angular dependence of FMR spectra. Using the damping constant efficiency of spin pumping from the Co(2)MnSi layer is evaluated. We found that a mixing conductance at the Co(2)MnSi/Pt interface is comparable to that at a permalloy/Pt interface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:499-50

(Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:499-502)”
“The International Continence Society

(ICS) adopted 1.3 g as the normative value for the 24-h pad test. We hypothesized that this cutoff value may not be valid for women who live in countries with high temperatures.

We documented the 24-h Selleck Proteasome inhibitor pad test values of continent women in Brazil and investigated the factors that can influence in vaginal humidity.

The sample consisted of 257 participants. The temperatures ranged from 19A degrees C to 27.8A degrees C. The median increase in the weight of the pad was 1.9 g (1.4-3.0 g, 95th percentile 4.4 g). Pad test results differed significantly between pre- and postmenopausal women (p = 0.026). There was a significant difference in the pad weights of women who use hormone therapy (p = 0.003).

The value of the 24-h pad test established by the ICS was

not valid for the investigated sample. Environmental conditions, menopausal status, and use of hormone therapy can interfere with the values of the pad test.”
“Escherichia coli strains of phylogenetic group B2 obtained from Western human hosts are enriched in virulence-associated genes and have a superior capacity to persist in the colonic microbiota. Here, E . coli strains from 22 infants born in Pakistan whose rectal flora was sampled regularly over the first 6 months of life were examined. B2 strains did not carry the virulence-associated genes sfaD/E, papC, neuB or hlyA more often than strains of other phylogenetic groups. B2 origin was not associated

with persistence in the bowel microbiota. As compared with Z-IETD-FMK B2 strains from Swedish infants, Pakistani B2 strains carried significantly less often the virulence genes fimH (p 0.04), papC (p 0.02), papG class III (p 0.01), sfaD/E (p <= 0.0001), neuB (p <= 0.0001), and hlyA (p 0.005), and also the high-pathogenicity island (p <= 0.0001). A minority of Pakistani B2 strains belonged to recognized uropathogenic O-groups, which are common among ‘Western’ B2 strains. Thus, extra-intestinal pathogenicity may be the foremost characteristic of B2 strains colonizing Western populations.”
“Previous studies revealed that transient hyperammonemia was noted after generalized convulsion. Compound C research buy This study was undertaken to analyze the association between postictal state and serum ammonia levels. Adult patients presenting to the emergency department with seizures were included. Serum ammonia and other blood tests were compared between patients with full recovery of consciousness after generalized convulsion and those who had not completely regained consciousness. Patients who had not completely regained consciousness (7 of 7, 100%) had higher rate (p = 0.035) of hyperammonemia compared with patients who had fully regained consciousness (4 of 10, 40%) and higher level of serum ammonia (246 +/- 96 mu g/dL vs. 102 +/- 99 mu g/dL, p = 0.006).