A multifactorial pathophysiology is hypothesized, with inflammation and postoperative β-adrenergic activation recognized as important contributing factors. The management
of POAF is complicated by a paucity of data relating to the outcomes of different therapeutic interventions in this population. This article reviews the literature on epidemiology, mechanisms, and risk factors of POAF, with a subsequent focus on the therapeutic interventions and guidelines regarding management. José Jalife The mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans are poorly understood. In particular, we simply do not understand how atrial AF becomes persistent or permanent. The objective of this Ku-0059436 cell line brief review is to address the most important factors involved in the mechanism of AF perpetuation, including structural remodeling in the form of fibrosis and electrical remodeling secondary to ion channel expression changes.
In addition, I discuss the possibility that both fibrosis and electrical remodeling might be preventable when intervening pharmacologically early enough before the remodeling LY2157299 in vivo process reaches a point of no return. Index 651 “
“David M. Shavelle Molly Mack and Ambarish Gopal Coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality has been declining in the United States and in regions where health care systems are relatively advanced. Still, CAD remains the number one cause of death in both men and women in the United States, and coronary events have increased ADP ribosylation factor in women. Many traditional risk factors for CAD are related to lifestyle, and preventative treatment can be tailored to modifying specific factors. Novel risk factors also may contribute to CAD. Finally, as the risk for CAD is largely understood to be inherited, further genetic testing should play a role in preventative treatment of the disease. Richard Kones and Umme Rumana Classical angina refers to typical substernal discomfort triggered by effort or emotions,
relieved with rest or nitroglycerin. The well-accepted pathogenesis is an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. Goals in therapy are improvement in quality of life by limiting the number and severity of attacks, protection against future lethal events, and measures to lower the burden of risk factors to slow disease progression. New pathophysiological data, drugs, as well as conceptual and technological advances have improved patient care over the past decade. Behavioral changes to improve diets, increase physical activity, and encourage adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs, are difficult to achieve but are effective. Sukhdeep S. Basra, Salim S. Virani, David Paniagua, Biswajit Kar, and Hani Jneid Non–ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) encompass the clinical entities of unstable angina and non–ST elevation myocardial infarction.