after transfection, cells were harvested at 36 hrs. after transfection and lysates were analyzed for luciferase activity using the Dual Luciferase Reporter assay (Promega, U.S.A.) according to the manufacturer’s directions with this website a GloMax™ Microplate Luminometer (Promega, U.S.A.). The luciferase reporter plasmids were co-transfected with pRL-SV40 to correct for variations in transfection efficiency. The relative luciferase activity normalized to the value of pRL-SV40 activity. Results were expressed as fold induction of pCCD1-Luc activity in CNE1 cells, which was assigned a value of 1. WHI-P131, PD98059 and AG1478 inhibited
the activities of cyclin D1 induced by stable expression LMP1. CNE1-LMP1 cells were
transfected with cyclin D1 promoter-reporter construct and Renilla luciferase plasmid as an internal control. The data represent Temsirolimus concentration the mean ± SD of the three independent experiments performed in triplicate. To observe WHI-P131, PD98059 and AG1478 inhibiting the activities of cyclin D1 induced by stable expression LMP1, 24 hrs. after transfection, cells were treated with WHI-P131 (Calbiochem, U.S.A. ), PD98059 (Cell Signalling Technology, U.S.A. ), AG1478 (Cell Signalling Technolgoy, U.S.A.) or 0.1% DMSO for 2 hr. Cells were harvested at 26 h after transfection and subjected to the luciferase assay. Empty firefly reporter vector served as the negative control. Electrophoretic
mobility shift assay (EMSA) EMSA for EGFR/STAT3 binding to cyclin D1 was performed using the LightShift™ Chemiluminesent EMSA kit (Pierce, U.S.A ) and was conducted according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Briefly, Double-stranded oligonucleotides, were labeled using the biotin 3′end labeling (Invitrogen, U.S.A ). Ten μg of nuclear extracts were incubated with 2 μl biotin-labeled www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-99021-ct99021-hcl.html probes in binding buffer for 20 min. at room temperature. Additionally, increasing concentrations of 200- fold of excess of a cold competitive oligonucleotide (biotin- unlabeled probe) and NF-κB biotin-unlabeled probe (as a nonspecific competitive probe) were added to confirm specificity of the interaction. The reaction mixture was then loaded onto 10% non- denaturing polyacrylamide gel containing 0.5× Tris borate (TBE) and electro- 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase phoresed in 0.5× TBE at 4°C prior to visualization according to the manufacturer; Followed by transferred to BiodyneR B Nylon membrane, avidin-HRP to probes, and visualized and quantitated with a PhosphorImager (Bio Rad, U.S.A). All the double-stranded probes were synthesized as follows: for the putative binding site of EGFR in the cyclin D1 promoter: 5′-TCGCTGAGATTCTTTGGCCGTCTG-3′ (wild type) and 5′-TCGCTGAGATACTCGGGCCGTCTG-3′ (mutated type). For the STAT3 binding site in cyclin D1 promoter: 5′-GTGGCGTTCTTGGAAATGCG- CCCA-3′ (wild type) and 5′-GTGGCGAGCTTGTGAATGCGCCCA-3′ (mutated type).