The solution was placed in an open column with silica gel The fo

The solution was placed in an open column with silica gel. The following reagents were added and the fractions were collected after each passage: (1) 100% petroleum ether, (2) petroleum ether:ethyl Doxorubicin ic50 acetate (1:1, v/v), (3) 100% ethyl acetate. The solvents used for fractions 4–19 were ethyl acetate with a gradient of increasing concentration (2%, 5% 8% 12% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The fraction (20) contained methanol and water (1:1, v/v), (21) 100% methanol, and (22) only water. The extracts were

grouped in the following order: fraction A (1–3), fraction B (4–8), fraction C (9–12), fraction D (13–17), fraction E (18–20) and fraction F (21, 22) according to results presented by Aparicio-Fernandez et al., 2005 and Aparicio-Fernandez et al., 2005. In order to evaporate, the mixtures were placed in a balloon on a rotary evaporator. The digestibility of the protein was determined by the method of Akeson and Stahmann (1964), which is assessed in vitro by determining the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis through the associations of pepsin and pancreatin in order to simulate the conditions existing in the gastrointestinal tract. Initially, 0.05 g of phaseolin were weighed and added to 3.3 ml of an acidic solution of pepsin. The samples were maintained for 3 h at 37 °C in a shaking water bath. Then, the

samples were neutralised with 3.3 ml ZD6474 in vivo of 0.1 N NaOH and added to 3.3 ml of pancreatin. The samples were kept for 24 h at 37 °C in a shaking water bath. In the next stage, 2 ml of the mixture were withdrawn and transferred to a centrifuge tube. Added to this mixture were 3.3 ml of picric acid (1%). The material was centrifuged for 30 min at 13950g. The Bradford method for protein determination was then used by pipetting 20 μl of the sample into a quartz cuvette and adding 1 ml of Bradford reagent solution. After

2 min, a reading was obtained on the spectrophotometer at 595 nm. The analysis of digestibility was originally done only with phaseolin, and was later repeated with the addition of polyphenolic extracts, being first added to 2.5 mg of polyphenolic crude extract GNAT2 and in the following analysis, being added to 2.5 mg of the polyphenol fractions of phaseolin. The electrophoresis were performed in polyacrylamide gel at a concentration of 10%. Added to the gel were 20 mg of phaseolin. For the preparation of the polyphenol–phaseolin mixture, 2 mg of polyphenols (dissolved in 10% ethanol) and 20 mg of phaseolin were added. The gels were stained in a solution of Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 for 2 h and then bleached in a solution of methanol and acetic acid. The trials were randomised. For the results, we used the SAS software (1996) for analysis of variance by F test and comparison of means by the Tukey test (p ⩽ 0.05). Protein digestibility is a nutritional parameter that evaluates the use of a protein source.

, 2013 and Wijekoon

, 2013 and Wijekoon Ibrutinib manufacturer et al., 2011). Comparison of all evaluated extractions with methanol and acetone aqueous solutions revealed that most of the acetone solutions extracted more phenolic compounds than the

hydro-methanolic solutions. The optimisation procedure was conducted in order to simultaneously maximise the total phenolic content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP and also to minimise DPPH values. The final result for this optimisation suggested that extraction with 84.5% methanol for 15 min, at 28 °C, and extraction with 65% acetone for 20 min, at 10 °C were the best solutions for this combination of variables. These new extractions were submitted to the same experimental analytical procedures as those applied from the beginning of this study. The observed and predicted values, along with the computed absolute errors (AE) for methanolic extraction were: total phenolics (mg/100 g) (observed: 590.82 ± 5.54; predicted: 588.81; AE = 0.34%), total flavonoids (mg/100 g) (observed: 165.55 ± 1.39; predicted: 164.47; AE = 0.66%), DPPH (mg/100 g) (observed: 2439.89 ± 72.55; predicted: 2441.10; AE = 0.05%), FRAP (μM/100 g) (observed: 1863.78 ± 24.67; predicted: 1835.31; AE = 1.55%). For extraction with the acetone solutions, the observed and predicted values, along with the computed

absolute errors (AE), were: total phenolics (mg/100 g) PLX-4720 concentration (observed: 738.23 ± 10.52; predicted: 711.59; AE = 3.74%), total flavonoid content (mg/100 g) (observed: 334.45 ± 2.72; predicted: 325.09; AE = 2.88%), DPPH (mg/100 g) (observed: 1856.00 ± 19.90; predicted: 1958.06; AE = 5.20%), FRAP (μM/100 g) (observed: 1960.13 ± 54.43; predicted: 1934.36; AE = 1.33%). Because of the low absolute error values obtained by the comparison between observed and predicted values, the proposed model could be used to predict the response value. The phenolic profile of the extracts was determined in the best conditions of extraction for phenolic and antioxidant capacity (Table 5). The chromatograms of phenolic compounds analysed are shown in

Fig. 1. Gallic, coumaric and caffeic acid, phloretin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were not detected in the samples analysed by HPLC. Except for chlorogenic acid and phloridzin, the extract from the acetone ADP ribosylation factor solution had the highest content (p ⩽ 0.05) of the individual phenols analysed. These results showed that the recovery of phenolic compounds is influenced by the polarity of the solvent used, as reported in other studies ( Kchaou et al., 2013 and Wijekoon et al., 2011). Methanol and acetone seem to have different specificities in the extraction of phenolic compounds. Total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in methanolic extractions had a significant (p ⩽ 0.05) correlation with antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH (r = −0.75; r = −0.52, respectively) and FRAP (r = 0.62; r = 0.53, respectively) assays.

, 2008 and Teixidó et al , 2011) Capillary electrophoresis

, 2008 and Teixidó et al., 2011). Capillary electrophoresis

has been applied to 5-HMF determination employing the micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) mode. Morales and Jiménez-Pérez (2001) developed a procedure for determining HMF in milk-based products using MEKC and compared with the classical reversed-phase HPLC method it gives similar values of repeatability and recovery. The 5-HMF peak was resolved using an uncoated fused-silica capillary with phosphate buffer containing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) (pH 7.5), and separation was completely achieved in 5 min. Silva et al. (2008) applied MEKC for the determination of 5-HMF in honey samples within 5 min. The recovery was 98%

and the limit of detection was 0.025 mg kg−1. More recently, Teixidó et al. (2011) found LY294002 chemical structure 5-HMF in several foodstuffs, Gefitinib chemical structure and the MEKC method (analysis time of 6 min) was compared with the results obtained by liquid chromatography, coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sample limit of detection (LOD, 0.7 mg kg−1) and limit of quantification (LOQ, 2.5 mg kg−1) were established by preparing the standards in a blank matrix. This study attempted to design a rapid method for the determination of 5-HMF in honey samples, using a MEKC methodology with a 32 factorial design and electrolytes composed of tetraborate/SDS and modified by methanol. The method performed under the optimised much conditions was validated and further applied in the determination of 5-HMF in honey samples of different geographical and botanical origins. No reports of a

method faster than that presented in this paper using capillary electrophoresis can be found in the literature. The CE assays were conducted in a capillary electrophoresis system (model 7100, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA), equipped with a diode array detector set at 284 nm, a temperature control device maintained at 25 °C and acquisition and data treatment software supplied by the manufacturer (HP ChemStation, rev. A.06.01). An uncoated fused-silica capillary (Polymicro Technologies, Phoenix, AZ, USA) was used, with dimensions of 32.0 cm total length, 8.5 cm effective length, an inner diameter of 50 μm and an outer diameter of 375 μm. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 5 mmol L−1 STB at pH 9.3 containing 120 mmol L−1 SDS. At the beginning of each day, the capillary was conditioned by flushing with 1 mol L−1 NaOH (10 min) followed by a 10 min flush with deionised water and BGE solution (15 min). In between runs, the capillary was reconditioned with the background solution (1 min flush). At the end of each working day, the capillary was rinsed with 1 mol L−1 NaOH (5 min) and water (10 min) and then dried with air (2 min).

EFSA is presently also preparing an opinion on emerging and novel

EFSA is presently also preparing an opinion on emerging and novel BFRs, for publication in 2012. In 2011, a book on BFRs was published which covered a multitude of issues relating to BFRs ( Eljarrat and Barceleó, 2011). Other major reviews of BFRs from 2005 onwards include Covaci et al., 2006,

Covaci et al., 2009 and Covaci et al., 2011, Law et al., 2006 and Law et al., 2008. A review on PFRs was recently published ( van der Veen and de Boer, 2012) while, among the CFRs, only the Dechloranes have been comprehensively reviewed to date ( Sverko et al., 2011). The BFRs most commonly used today are tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) and HBCDD (also sometimes referred to as HBCD). Due to EU legislative measures and the inclusion of PentaBDE and OctaBDE among the Stockholm Convention find more selleck screening library POPs, there are now changes in the production and use of PBDEs, HBCDDs and many other BFRs,

including some which are being used as replacements for now restricted formulations. DecaBDE is subjected to use restrictions according to the RoHS directive (Directive 2002/95/EC (OJ, 2003)) after the European Court of Justice decision from 2008 (OJ, 2008). However, these changes cannot be documented adequately as the producers do not make production figures available, regardless of where the chemicals are manufactured. Similarly, there is little information available on the current applications in which these compounds are being used. The situation is similar also for production and use of CFRs and PFRs. It is safe to say that the use of BFRs has increased dramatically since the 1970s and their cumulative current production volume exceeds 200,000 t per year, based on available information (personal communication, V. Steukers, Albemarle, 2008; references in Eljarrat and Barceleó, 2011). Volumes of CFRs seem to be higher since, in 2007, the production of polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) (also known as

chlorinated paraffins (CPs)) amounted to up to 600,000 t per year, in China alone (Fiedler, 2010). These compounds are not solely used as flame retardants, however, and have a number of selleck products other applications (Nicholls et al., 2001). The worldwide production volume of PFRs in 2004 was slightly above 200,000 t per year (EFRA, 2007). Due to the increased regulatory interest in and restrictions on PBDEs and HBCDD, alternative FRs are now being used in their place. It is, as shown below, difficult even to list those BFRs currently being offered for sale in the market. In the present document, we are therefore presenting all BFRs, CFRs and PFRs that have been proposed to date for use as FRs. Several FRs have only recently been detected in the environment, even though they may have been in use for some time, e.g. Dechlorane Plus (Sverko et al., 2011). The analysis, environmental fate and behavior of novel BFRs have been reviewed (Covaci et al., 2011 and Papachlimitzou et al.

Any lapse of attention (or goal neglect, De Jong et al , 1999 and

Any lapse of attention (or goal neglect, De Jong et al., 1999 and Duncan, 1995) will

likely lead to a loss of the task goal and will result in attention being automatically captured by internal (e.g., mind-wandering; Kane et al., 2007 and McVay PLX-4720 purchase and Kane, 2012) or external distraction (e.g., Fukuda and Vogel, 2009 and Unsworth et al., 2004). Thus, attention control abilities are needed to protect items that are being held in the focus of attention (or primary memory), to effectively select target representations for active maintenance, and to filter out irrelevant distractors and prevent them from gaining access to the current focus of attention (e.g., Vogel et al., 2005). Given that attention control is needed to protect items within the capacity of the focus of attention, it is perhaps not surprising that prior work has suggested a close linkage between capacity and attention control (e.g., Cowan et al., 2006, Unsworth and Engle, 2007a and Vogel et al., 2005). The current results provide important evidence for this linkage and suggest that capacity and attention control are very much highly related. Like capacity, attention control abilities are needed in a host of activities

where internal and external distraction can capture attention away from the primary task (such as reading, problem solving, or reasoning) leading to items being displaced from the current focus of attention. Within the overall WM system attention control is needed to ensure that task-relevant items are being actively maintained and attentional capture SCH772984 chemical structure from internal and external distractors is prevented. The final main facet within the current framework is secondary memory abilities. Secondary memory abilities refer to the ability to successfully encode information into secondary memory and to recover information that was recently displaced from the focus of attention or to bring relevant items into the focus of attention. As noted previously, given selleck chemicals that capacity

and attention control abilities are limited, it seems likely that some items will not be able to be maintained and thus, they will have to be retrieved from secondary memory. In order for information to be retrieved from secondary memory it is critically important that that information was successfully encoded in the first place and that appropriate retrieval cues can be generated to access the desired information. Thus, individuals will differ in the extent to which they can successfully encode information into secondary memory (e.g., Bailey et al., 2008 and Unsworth and Spillers, 2010b) as well as the ability to generate cues to successfully retrieve information from secondary memory (e.g., Unsworth et al., 2013 and Unsworth et al., 2012).

Thus, on a per locus basis, sequencing of haplotypes of close SNP

Thus, on a per locus basis, sequencing of haplotypes of close SNPs can yield more information than sequencing a single SNP. The question is whether a sufficient number of appropriate haplotype loci can be identified. The value of a locus for identifying familial LBH589 price relationships, i.e., lineage informativeness, is related to the number of alleles in the relevant population [26]. Multiple alleles make it less likely two unrelated individuals share both alleles by chance. The more heterozygous a locus, the greater is the chance that the

relevant alleles are uncommon in general but more likely to be found among close relatives than among random or unrelated individuals. More reliable inferences about the degree of relatedness of two individuals are possible if more markers are used. In their review, Weir et al. [26] concluded “It seems that 50 SNPs are insufficient and that 200 SNPs or more will be needed to characterize relatedness.”

For large datasets containing many hundreds of DNA markers quite sophisticated methods of inferring familial relationships have been developed [27]. However, smaller numbers of loci can be used if the loci are sufficiently this website heterozygous with multiple alleles. The standard set of CODIS STRPs can be quite useful in this regard because of their multiple alleles but currently they are most reliably genotyped using capillary electrophoresis (CE) while new technology argues for DNA sequencing as a general platform for all forensically relevant markers. Our objective is to validate the use of sequencing for familial searching (and other forensic questions) by identifying a large number of SNP-based, multi-allelic haplotype loci that can be typed by DNA sequencing. To

be appropriate for determining phase by sequencing, we are currently focusing on microhaplotype loci (microhaps) Thalidomide with extents of 200 base pairs (bp) or less. The potential value of microhaplotypes [23] and [28] and the new results presented here document our progress to find, select, and validate microhaplotype loci for forensic work. A minimum criterion for a microhaplotype locus is at least three haplotypes (alleles) within a region smaller than 200 bp. We have arbitrarily used 200 bp as a current upper limit; this is within the current read length of “desktop” sequencers such as the Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. Regions with a recombination hot spot within that 200 bp must be excluded but very rare historical recombination events will not detract from the general ability to assume identity by descent within a family.

, 2009) The effect of HA addition thus can be shortly pro-oxidat

, 2009). The effect of HA addition thus can be shortly pro-oxidative and then anti-oxidative for a prolonged period of time. Thus, upon a massive

induction of expression of HO-1 stimulated by HA and PMA in ACH-2 cells, the anti-oxidative effects could eventually click here prevail, and inhibit provirus reactivation during a longer incubation in the presence of HA, as suggested by the results presented in Fig. 8A and B. The situation seems to be different in A2 and H12 cells in which HO-1 was found expressed already in untreated cells and its levels were not further increased by any treatment; HO-1 thus could start to effectively degrade HA immediately after its addition. Apparently, the kinetics and balance between the pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative effects of HO-1 products might be different in these cells. We have used A2 and H12 cells (Blazkova et al., 2009 and Jordan et al., 2003) to characterize the effects of HA on LTR-driven expression, comparing western blot analysis detecting levels of EGFP and flow cytometry detecting fluorescence of EGFP. The GPCR Compound Library clinical trial flow cytometry results underestimate the numbers of EGFP-positive cells and/or levels of EGFP expressed, as high levels of EGFP are cytotoxic and dead cells loose EGFP fluorescence.

Nevertheless, we assessed the overall expression of EGFP by the number of all EGFP-positive cells × arithmetic mean of green fluorescence of the green cell population. Using this approximation, the levels

of EGFP expression were found increased even by treatment with 1.25 μl/ml of HA in most experiments, corresponding to the results of western blot analysis. The percentage of green (EGFP-positive) cells in samples treated with most 1.25 μl/ml of HA used to be lower than in untreated cells, while the arithmetic mean and median of green fluorescence of all green and live green cells, respectively, were always higher. In higher concentrations of HA, as well as in other stimulatory treatments, all values were higher than in controls. In general in A2 and H12 cells, HA alone or in combination with other stimulatory agents increased LTR-driven EGFP expression as well as cell death. These tendencies seemed to be similar in ACH-2 cells. However, a long term incubation of A3.01 and Jurkat cells with HA did not significantly increase cell death. It is thus possible that the cytotoxicity of HA might be further increased due to expression of HIV or EGFP. In fact, it would be of advantage if latently infected cells were more prone to cell death induced by HA alone or in combinations. There might be several mechanisms involved in cell death induced by HA: first, a direct increase in ROS production due to a higher availability of heme and iron; second, an indirect cytotoxicity of HA that would further increase ROS production and HIV reactivation; third, the resulting increase in HIV reactivation would lead to the cell death.

“Des erreurs se sont glissées dans l’article « Évaluation

“Des erreurs se sont glissées dans l’article « Évaluation et amélioration de la qualité microbiologique des antiseptiques préparés à la pharmacie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat », volume 11, numéro 3/2009 d’Antibiotiques. Les affiliations des auteurs n’étaient pas correctes, il fallait lire : S. Derfoufia,*, NLG919 in vitro M. Seffarb, M. Ait El Kadib, B.E. Lmimounic, W. El Melloukic, Y. Bensoudaa a Pharmacie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat, CHU Ibn Sina, Rabat, Maroc b Laboratoire de bactériologie de l’hôpital des spécialités de Rabat, CHU Ibn Sina, Rabat, Maroc c Laboratoire de parasitologie de l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohamed V, Rabat, Maroc Nous prions

nos lecteurs de nous excuser pour cette erreur. “
“The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we demonstrate that the ability to generate quantity implicatures relies upon competence with informativeness, and that previous investigations of the acquisition of implicature confound these two abilities. Competence with informativeness is also necessary for detecting ambiguity in referential communication tasks. It is therefore not coincidental that recent research on implicatures is converging with well-established research on ambiguity detection with respect to the age at which children reach adult-like competence.

Secondly, we challenge the conclusion that children younger than 7 years old lack adult-like competence in Selleckchem PCI 32765 these tasks. We show that 5-year-old children are in fact aware of underinformativeness, but that they are also tolerant of pragmatic infelicity, and do not penalise it as strictly as logical falsity. In the most widely-used experimental paradigms, this pragmatic

tolerance has led to the Megestrol Acetate misleading conclusion that children are not competent with informativeness. In our first study, we replicate the major finding that children fail with informativeness when a binary judgement task is used. In our second and third studies, we show that young children and adults are sensitive to but tolerant of violations of informativeness. We also show that these findings are not specific to just one type of linguistic expression. In the next section we briefly discuss quantity implicature, informativeness and ambiguity detection, and highlight the common pragmatic competence that underlies them. We then review research on the acquisition of informativeness and spell out the predictions of our novel account, before verifying these experimentally. A fundamental aspect of human communicative competence is the ability to express and infer information beyond what is explicitly said. For example, consider (1) and (2): (1) a. Mary: Did you dance with John and Bill? b. Jane: I danced with John c. Implicature: Jane did not dance with Bill (2) a. Mary: Did all your class fail the test? b. Jane: Some of my class failed c.

4) This is low relative to the 5- to

4). This is low relative to the 5- to find more 10-fold increases reported as being typical in the analysis of global and European sedimentation records by Dearing and Jones (2003) and Rose et al. (2011), respectively. Some of that variation is likely related to methodological differences. For example, we calculated background sedimentation rates as the median rate for the first half of the 20th century, whereas Rose et al. (2011) used 1850–1875 or basal sedimentation rates as background. But perhaps more significantly, many of the global and European study catchments have experienced greater intensities of land use (e.g. complete deforestation, intensive agriculture, or rapid urbanization)

and/or have had longer histories of industrialization. Our compiled inventory of lake sedimentation includes consistently derived variables that describe variations in catchment conditions since the mid 20th century, including land use density and climate change. These environmental data and our associated analyses provide further support that elevated sedimentation rates in lakes of western Canada

may be related to land use impacts. Other studies of land use effects on sediment transfer in forested catchments are dominantly based on assessments of water quality or channel conditions relatively short distances downstream of land use impacts (for example, see Gomi et al. (2005) review paper). Such studies often focus on the importance of preserving riparian buffers, maintaining bank stability, and limiting road crossings for controlling Dapagliflozin fluvial sediment. With our OSI-744 supplier mixed-effects modeling, full-catchment (i.e. not buffered) road and cut densities were most strongly associated

with lake sedimentation rates (Table 3). The presence of multiple land use variables in the best fit models suggests that sedimentation is related to cumulative land use impacts. Unlike that for background sedimentation, relative sedimentation trends during the late 20th century did not exhibit regional, spatial scale, or slope controls (c.f. Schiefer et al., 2001a and Schiefer et al., 2001b). Fixed- and random-effect parameters indicate that greater densities of land use correspond with increased sedimentation; however, there is a large amount of inter-catchment variability in this relation. The inclusion of roads_no_buf and cuts_no_buf densities instead of related buffered variables in the best model suggests that considering land use proximity to watercourses does not strengthen the relation between land use and elevated sedimentation. Since fine sediment is deposited at the mid-lake coring sites, this could indicate the prevalence of supply-limited sediment transfer, with effective slope-channel coupling, and low catchment potential for storage for that mobilized fraction. The lack of a proximity effect between land use and lake sedimentation in our analysis contradicts some findings of Spicer (1999) and Schiefer and Immell (2012) based on their analyses of corresponding catchment subsets.

In other periods or situations without entrenchment, floodplain f

In other periods or situations without entrenchment, floodplain fine-sediment sequestration even in upper catchment reaches may have been considerable. Alternative scenarios were created by other activities, for example with mining wastes fed directly out onto steepland valley floors, or fine sediment being retained by regulating ponds, reservoirs and weirs. At the present day local valley-floor recycling in steeper higher-energy valleys seems to be dominant, setting a maximum age for overbank fines on top BGB324 of lateral accretion surfaces or within abandoned channels (the

latter also accreting greater thicknesses of material in ponding situations). Lowland floodplains are dominated by moderate but variable accumulation rates (e.g. Bortezomib purchase Walling et al., 1996 and Rumsby, 2000). ‘Supply side’ factors are far from being the only factor controlling fine sediment accumulation rates at sampling sites, either locally on the variable relief of floodplains, or regionally because of entrenchment/aggradation factors. A final qualification to be added is that to identify episodes of AA formation is not necessarily to imply that they relate simply to episodes of human activity. Climatic fluctuations have occurred in tandem, and periods of AA development may in detail relate to storm and flood periodicity (cf. Macklin

et al., 2010). As has been observed many times (e.g. Macklin and Lewin, 1993), separating human and environmental effects is by Adenosine triphosphate no means easy, although erosion susceptibility and accelerated sediment delivery within the anthropogenic era is not in doubt. Anthropogenic alluvia were identified using the latest version of the UK Holocene 14C-dated fluvial database (Macklin et al., 2010 and Macklin et al., 2012), containing 844 14C-dated units in total. Some studies in which dates were reported were focused on studying AA (e.g. Shotton, 1978) as defined here, but many were conducted

primarily for archaeological and palaeoecological purposes. Sediment units were identified as being AA if one or more of six diagnostic criteria were noted as being present (Table 1). Of the 130 AA dated units, 66 were identified on the basis of one criterion, 53 with two criteria and 11 using three. AA units were classified in five different ways: (1) by grain size into coarse gravels (31 units) and fine sediment (99 units in sand, silt and clay); (2) according to anthropogenic activity (deforestation, cultivation, engineering, mining, and unspecified) using associated palaeoecological, geochemical and charcoal evidence (Table 2); (3) by depositional environment (cf. Macklin and Lewin, 2003 and Lewin et al., 2005); (4) by catchment size; and (5) into upland glaciated (85 units) and lowland unglaciated catchments (45 units). The five depositional environments distinguished were: channel bed sediments (13 units), palaeochannel fills (49 units), floodplain sediments (60 units), floodbasins (6 units) and debris fan/colluvial sediments (2 units).