Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or witho

Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results

suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules.”
“Only a few cases of hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP) have been published. This report presents an association between HPAFP and inflammatory testis disease, to the authors’ knowledge, for the first time. HPAFP was diagnosed in a 41-year-old patient with acute epididymitis after exclusion of malignancies and benign diseases.”
“With the aim of improving the photonic selleck inhibitor efficiency of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and its display duration, both the hole transport layer (HTL) and the emitting layer (EL) were prepared as nanostructured thin films. For the HTL, nanocomposite films were prepared

by spin-coating a homogeneous solution of low molecular weight poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) and surfactant-capped TiO2 nanocrystals onto low resistivity indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates; for the EL, nancrystalline titatium oxide (nc-TiO2)-embedded Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4- phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV+ nc-TiO2) conjugate polymers were spin-coated onto the HTL. Also, for a shallow contact of Al/LiF/MEH-PPV instead of Al/MEH-PPV a super LiF thin film was deposited onto the EL by vacuum evaporation. The resulting multilayer OLED had the following structure of Al/LiF/MEH-PPV+nc-TiO2/PEDOT-PSS+nc-TiO2/ITO. Characterization of the

nanocomposite films showed that both the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and the GS-7977 molecular weight photoluminescent properties of the nanocomposite materials were significantly enhanced in comparison with the standard polymers. OLEDs made from these layers would exhibit a large photonic efficiency. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3117518]“
“Two new triterpenoids characterised as 30-normethyl fernen-22-one (capillirone, 1) and hopan-3-ol (capillirol B, 2), along with two known triterpenoids, 4–hydroxyfilican-3-one and 3-,4–dihydroxyfilicane, have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the fronds of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (Adiantaceae). Compounds 1 and 3 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with 33.07% (p<0.01) and 42.30% (p<0.001) inhibition as compared to indomethacin that exhibited 60.00% (p<0.001) inhibition after 3h in the carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema method. Compound 3 showed potent anti-nociceptive activity with 42.37% inhibition as compared to indomethacin that showed 45.34% inhibition in the writhing test.

We describe and review these types of esophagojejunostomy using a

We describe and review these types of esophagojejunostomy using a step-by-step approach.

The mean reconstruction times were longer for types A and B than for types C and D (p < 0.05). In terms of complications, there were five cases (10.4 %) of anastomosis leakage, which was more common in types A and B: two cases in each of type A and B and one case in type C. Moreover, anastomosis stricture requiring intervention was more common

in types A and B (p < 0.05).

To date, there are no reliable reconstruction methods after LTG. Therefore, special care is needed to prevent postoperative complication regardless of methods; also, technical innovations to support development of the safest methods of esophagojejunostomy click here are warranted.”
“New methods were developed for the synthesis of

[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e][1,2,3,4]tetrazine 4,6-dioxide from 4-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)-N-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-amine or its alkali metal salts and acid anhydrides (or chlorides) in the presence of strong acids. The yield of [1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e][1,2,3,4]tetrazine 4,6-dioxide in acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid or sulfuric anhydride at 20A degrees C in 20 min attained 83%. A general mechanism was proposed for the reactions under study. Acetyl group behaved for the first time as departing group in the synthesis 1,2,3,4-tetrazine 1,3-dioxides, and [1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e][1,2,3,4]tetrazine 4,6-dioxide was obtained in 47% yield from N-[4-(acetyl-NNO-azoxy)-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl]acetamide.”
“Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, smilasides M and N, together with the known

compound 20,60-diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose, were isolated and characterized from the DMXAA research buy roots and rhizomes of Smilax riparia A. DC. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 20,60-diacetyl-3-Z-feruloyl-6-feruloylsucrose (1) and 2′,6′-diacetyl-3- feruloyl-6-Z-feruloylsucrose (2) on the basis of extensive analysis of HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data.”
“A new sesquiterpeniod, 6, 7, 10-trihydroxyisoducane (1), together with two known sesquiterpenoids, oplodiol (2) and oplopanone (3), were isolated from the chloroform extract of the rhizomes of Homalomena occulta. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectral interpretation.”
“Objective: African American women are disproportionately burdened by asthma morbidity and mortality and may be more likely than asthma patients in general to have comorbid health conditions. This study sought to identify the self-management challenges faced by African American women with asthma and comorbidities, how they prioritize their conditions and behaviors perceived as beneficial across conditions. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African-American women (mean age 52 years) with persistent asthma and at least one of the following: diabetes, heart disease or arthritis.

Wheat bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and good levels of colli

Wheat bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and good levels of collinearity among the wheat Snn3 regions, rice (Oryza sativa), and Brachypodium distachyon were exploited for saturation and fine mapping of the Snn3-D1

locus. Markers delineating the Snn3-D1 locus to a 1.4 cM interval will be useful for initiating positional cloning. Further Momelotinib characterization of how these homoeologous genes mediate recognition of the same pathogen effector should enhance understanding of host manipulation by necrotrophic pathogens in causing disease.”
“Background: A direct relation exists between sodium and calcium excretion, but randomized studies evaluating the sustained effect of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria, one of the main risk factors for calcium-oxalate stone formation, PFTα ic50 are still lacking.

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the effect of a low-salt diet on urinary calcium excretion in patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis.

Design: Patients affected by idiopathic calcium stone disease and hypercalciuria (> 300 mg Ca/d in men and > 250 mg Ca/d in women) were

randomly assigned to receive either water therapy alone (control diet) or water therapy and a low-salt diet (low-sodium diet) for 3 mo. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were obtained twice from all patients: one sample at baseline on a free diet and one sample after 3 mo of treatment.

Results: A total of 210 patients were randomly assigned to receive PF-04929113 price a control diet (n = 102) or a low-sodium diet (n = 108); 13 patients (2 on the control diet, 11 on the low-sodium diet) withdrew from the trial. At the follow-up visit, patients on the low-sodium diet had lower urinary sodium (mean +/- SD: 68 +/- 43 mmol/d at 3 mo compared with 228 +/- 57 mmol/d at baseline; P < 0.001).

Concomitant with this change, they showed lower urinary calcium (271 +/- 86 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 361 +/- 129 mg/d on the control diet, P < 0.001) and lower oxalate excretion (28 +/- 8 mg/d at 3 mo compared with 32 +/- 10 mg/d on the control diet, P = 0.001). Urinary calcium was within the normal range in 61.9% of the patients on the low-salt diet and in 34.0% of those on the control diet (difference: +27.9%; 95% CI: +14.4%, + 41.3%; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: A low-salt diet can reduce calcium excretion in hyper-calciuric stone formers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT01005082. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:565-70.”
“P>Two allelic non-nodulating mutants, nod49 and rj1, were characterized using map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches, and genetic complementation.

“BACKGROUND The treatment of ingrown toenail is usually bo

“BACKGROUND The treatment of ingrown toenail is usually bothersome for patients and doctors.

OBJECTIVES To compare two treatment techniques of ingrown toenails-phenol

matricectomy (PM) and nail-splinting using a flexible tube (FT)-in terms of efficacy, postoperative pain, postoperative cosmetic satisfaction, amount of tissue damage, and recurrence.

METHODS AND MATERIALS One hundred twenty ingrown toenails were randomized and divided into PM and FT groups. All cases were evaluated 2 days and 1 and 6 months after treatment. Postoperative pain, cosmetic satisfaction, time to recovery, and recurrence rate were measured.

RESULTS Postoperative pain was less and cosmetic satisfaction was Selleckchem Quisinostat good in selleck products both groups (p < .001). Our recurrence rate was 8.4%. There were no statistical differences between groups in these measures. Tissue improvement rate was 6% in the PM group and 93% in the FT group 2 days after the procedures (p < .001).

CONCLUSIONS Although FT provides faster

recovery and less postoperative morbidity than PM, the techniques are equally effective in treating ingrown toenails.”
“Epoxy resins are hardly toughened by low weight content of tougheners. In this study, 5 wt % polyurea was adopted to significantly toughen piperidine-cured epoxy, as fracture toughness improved from 0.78 to 1.98 MPa m(1/2) We focused on the reactions and morphology evolution of epoxy/polyurea mixture. The polyurea molecular weight was reduced by the exchange reactions of polyurea with epoxy during mixing, as evidenced by gel permeation chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. As a result, epoxy molecules were chemically bonded with polyurea, improving particle content and interface Epigenetic inhibitor price thickness. Transmission electron microscope observation shows that (a) polyurea in situ formed nanoparticles in matrix which subsequently aggregate into micron-sized particles of thick interface with matrix; and (b) the particles became less stainable with increasing the mixing time, because the reactions promoted

high levels of crosslink density of the particles which were thus more resistant to the diffusion of staining chemicals. Longer mixing time improved, obviously, the fracture toughness of epoxy/polyurea composite. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 3265-3272,2010″
“‘Requeijao cremoso’ is a spreadable processed cheese that shows ample acceptance on the Brazilian market. In this work, analogues of this cheese, made by substituting 25% and 50% of the dairy fat with vegetable fat, were studied with respect to physical-chemical composition, texture profile, microstructure and sensory acceptance. The substitution of part of the dairy cream by vegetable fat resulted in increased adhesiveness and hardness.

The changes within the skin microstructure have led to numerous s

The changes within the skin microstructure have led to numerous surgical complications. In a review of the orthopedic literature, we found no reports describing surgical outcomes or the success of skin closures in procedures related to the hip for patients with scleroderma. We present a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of scleroderma who underwent a bipolar hemiarthroplasty to repair a right transcervical femoral neck fracture. The risk factors associated with wound healing and effects of skin contractures in systemic sclerosis patients are reviewed.”
“Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are increasingly recognized as common in

patients with dementia, both of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease, AD) or vascular origin (vascular dementia, VaD). In this study, 302 see more demented patients,

166 with AD and 136 with VaD, were evaluated for NPS according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score at the Alzheimer’s Evaluation Unit of Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital-IRCCS, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was also performed in all demented patients. The means of NPI scores did not differ in two groups. The overall prevalence of NPS was similar in both groups of patients (69.7% vs. 69.4%). Patients with AD had higher frequency in agitation/aggression and irritability/lability MK-8776 in vitro than VaD patients. Logistic analysis demonstrated a significant association between severity of the ALK inhibitor cognitive impairment and depression and eating disorders in both AD and VaD patients. The association with agitation/aggression, irritability/lability, and aberrant motor activity was found in AD only, and with apathy in VaD patients only. In both AD and VaD patients, there was a significant association between the impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) and the majority of NPI domains. A significant association was also found between the impairment of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and agitation/aggression, anxiety, aberrant

motor activity in AD and depression, apathy, irritability/lability, sleep disturbance and eating disorders in both AD and VaD patients. In particular, a causal mediation analysis was performed to better understand whether the relationship of NPS to functional impairment was direct or mediated by severity of cognitive dysfunction, i.e. Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) score. Only agitation/aggression was mediated by the CDR score in affecting ADL status in VaD patients (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27). The NPI-Distress scores showed a significantly higher levels of distress in caregivers of AD than VaD. There were significant differences between AD and VaD patients with NPS, and these symptoms varied according to dementia subtype and severity and induced marked disability in ADL and IADL, increasing, prevalently, the distress of the caregivers of AD patients.

Using the cell-cycle control networks of the budding yeast (Sacch

Using the cell-cycle control networks of the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as examples, we first demonstrate

the correlation of this quantity with the dynamic stability of biological control networks, and then we establish a significant association between this quantity and the structural stability of the networks. And we further substantiate the generality of this approach with a broad spectrum of biological and random networks. We conclude that the regulation entropy is an effective order parameter in evaluating the robustness of biological control networks. Our work suggests a novel connection between the topological feature and the dynamic property of biological regulatory networks.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of and Autophagy inhibitor morbidity associated with the tension-free vaginal tape-secur (TVT-S) procedure in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

We performed a prospective trial, examining 86 women with primary SUI. Eighty-two patients had a 1-year follow-up (dropout rate = 4.6%). The preoperative evaluation included urinalysis, urodynamic studies, and validated questionnaires. The 1-year outcome evaluation also included a 1-h pad testing.

At the 1-year

follow-up, 43 (52.4%) women were objectively cured, and 14 (17.1%) women were objectively improved. Subjectively, 49 (59.7%) patients did not experience urine loss, and 18 (22.2%) Selleck NU7441 women improved in this respect.

Postoperative de novo urge incontinence symptoms developed in 24.4% (n = 20) of patients. Vaginal defect healing occurred in 6.1% (n = 5) of patients, and one (1.2%) case of urethral erosion was reported.

Objective and subjective cure rates following TVT-S are inferior to other tape procedures.”
“MADS-domain transcription factors play pivotal roles in various developmental processes. The lack of simple loss-of-function phenotypes provides impediments to understand the biological function of some of the MADS-box transcription factors. Here we have characterized the potential role of the Arabidopsis thaliana AGAMOUS-LIKE6 (AGL6) gene by fusing full-length VS-6063 mouse coding sequence with transcriptional activator and repressor domains and suggest a role for AGL6 in lateral organ development and flowering. Upon photoperiodic induction of flowering, AGL6 becomes expressed in abaxial and proximal regions of cauline leaf primordia, as well as the cryptic bracts subtending flowers. In developing flowers, AGL6 is detected in the proximal regions of all floral organs and in developing ovules. Converting AGL6 into a strong activator through fusion to the VP16 domain triggers bract outgrowth, implicating AGL6 in the development of bractless flowers in Arabidopsis. In addition, ectopic reproductive structures form on both bracts and flowers in gAGL6::VP16 transgenic plants, which is dependent on B and C class homeotic genes, but independent of LEAFY.

To further inform clinical practice,

To further inform clinical practice, GF120918 datasheet we analyzed the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database of deceased donor kidney transplants performed from July 2004 to February 2008 to determine if HTK (n = 5728) versus UW (n = 15 898) preservation impacted DGF or death-censored graft survival. On adjusted analyses, HTK preservation had no effect on DGF (odds ratio [OR] 0.99, p = 0.7) but was

associated with an increased risk of death-censored graft loss (hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, p = 0.008). The detrimental effect of HTK was a relatively late one, with a strong association between HTK and subsequent graft loss in those surviving beyond 12 months (HR 1.43, p = 0.007). Interestingly, a much stronger effect was seen in African-American recipients (HR 1.55, p = 0.024) than in Caucasian recipients (HR 1.18, p = 0.5). Given recent studies that also demonstrate that HTK preservation reduces liver and pancreas allograft survival, we suggest that the use of HTK for abdominal organ recovery should be reconsidered.”
“Rice bran was heated at 120 degrees C for 0 to 30 min to extend the oxidative stability. Also, effects of visible light irradiation on the crude rice bran oil (RBO)

from rice bran heated at 120 degrees C for 20 min were studied. As heat treatment time increased from 0 to 30 min, rice Poziotinib clinical trial bran had significantly high oxidative stability at 40 degrees C for 12 days (p<0.05). Headspace oxygen content in rice bran without heat treatment decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas those in heat treated rice bran did not change significantly (p>0.05). Results of acid value and

conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) confirmed the higher oxidative stability of heat treated rice bran. gamma-Oryzanol content was not significantly different among crude RBO during heat see more treatment and storage (p>0.05). Visible light irradiation caused similar degree of lipid oxidation in crude RBOs from rice bran irrespective of heat stabilization for 48 h, which may be due to the presence of photosensitizers in crude RBO like chlorophylls. This study showed that heat treatment was not effective to enhance the oxidative stability of RBO under visible light irradiation and products containing rice bran should be stored in the dark conditions.”
“In this study a novel and simple route for the synthesis of the iodine isocyanate (INCO) adduct of soybean oil triglycerides is described. Soybean oil iodo isocyanate (ISONCO) was synthesized by the reaction of iodine isocyanate and soybean oil at room temperature. ISONCO was then polymerized With polyols, such as, castor oil, pentamethylene, glycol, and glycerol to give the corresponding polyurethanes and with polyamines, Such as, ethylene diamine, hexamethylene diamine, and triethylene tetramine to give corresponding polyureas. The structures of the monomer and the polymers were determined by FTIR and (1)H-NMR analyses. Thermal properties of the polymers were determined by DSC and TGA.

There are now six antiretroviral drug classes, with more than 20

There are now six antiretroviral drug classes, with more than 20 unique antiretroviral drugs. However, HIV drug resistance occurs with all antiretroviral agents. Drug resistance can affect the response to antiretroviral therapy and is associated with

increased mortality. The emergence of resistance in persons on antiretroviral therapy and the transmission of drug-resistant HIV strains to newly infected persons are now major public health concerns. Resistant variants that make up as little as 1% of the viral population in an HIV-infected person are clinically important, as they can rapidly grow under drug selection pressure and lead to therapy failure. However, current resistance assays used in the clinic reliably detect resistant variants only if they make up at least 20% of the circulating viral population. Recently, antiretroviral STAT inhibitor drugs have been developed that can inhibit HIV replication at new sites within the viral life cycle. These new drugs may improve clinical outcomes in persons infected with multidrug-resistant HIV. This review addresses the epidemiology and biological mechanisms of

HIV drug resistance and the new approaches to detect and combat HIV drug resistance.”
“New materials for polymer organic light-emitting diodes based on a polymer matrix doped with phosphorescent dyes are presented. The matrix system is based on a polystyrene backbone bearing either electron or hole transporting units at the 4-position of each repeat unit. Random copolymers and polymer blend systems PRIMA-1MET price of the homopolymers are prepared, both with 62 wt.% electron transporting and 38 wt.% hole transporting moieties. Adding a green electrophosphorescent dye to the polymer matrix leads to efficient electroluminescence with a maximum current efficiency of 35 cd/A and a maximum external quantum efficiency of up to 10%. The mobilities of electrons

and holes in the dye-doped copolymer, as measured by transient electroluminescence, are around 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-6) cm(2)/Vs, respectively, while the blend of the two homopolymers exhibits slightly lower mobilities of both types of carriers. ERK inhibitor order Despite the pronounced imbalance of charge transport, the device performance is almost entirely limited by the phosphorescence efficiency of the dye, implying balanced flow of holes and electrons into the active region. Also, devices made with either the copolymer or the blend yielded very similar device efficiencies, despite the noticeable difference in electron and hole mobility. It is proposed that electrons are efficiently blocked at the interlayer and that the so-formed space charge assists the balanced injection of holes. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

The primary outcome assessed was the frequency of acute exacerbat

The primary outcome assessed was the frequency of acute exacerbations during follow-up. Results: Six trials involving 1,485 COPD patients were included in the analysis. Analysis of the pooled data of all 6 trials showed that macrolide administration reduced the frequency of acute exacerbations of COPD [risk ratio (RR) = 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.89, p = 0.01]. Subgroup analysis showed that only erythromycin might be associated with decreased COPD exacerbations (erythromycin: p = 0.04, azithromycin: p = 0.22, clarithromycin: p = 0.18). Moreover, macrolide therapy for 3 months did not significantly reduce the number of exacerbations (p = 0.18), whereas a beneficial effect was conclusive in the 6-month

(p = 0.009) and 12-month (p = 0.03) treatment subgroups. In addition, nonfatal adverse events were more frequent in the macrolide treatment groups than in the controls (RR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.06-1.64, p = 0.01). However, related clinical

learn more BMN673 factors had no influence on the overall result (p = 0.19). There was no publication bias among the included trials. Conclusions: Macrolide therapy was effective and safe in decreasing the frequency of exacerbations in patients with COPD. Treatment might provide a significant benefit but only when therapy lasts more than 6 months. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“MgB2/Al/AlN/MgB2 multilayered Josephson junctions were fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrates. The measured current-voltage characteristics were well fitted with a resistively and capacitively shunted junction model. For a junction with 0.56-nm-thick AlN and 10-nm-thick Al layers, the current

density was 740 A/cm(2) and the ICRN product was 210 mu V. The Josephson currents were found to be ideally modulated in accordance with theoretical calculations by an external magnetic field. Clear Shapiro steps were observed under irradiation at 95.622 GHz, and fourth step was obtained. Shapiro step heights were consistent with the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3029726]“
“Antineutrophil Navitoclax cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitides (AASV) consists of small-vessel systemic inflammatory disorders which commonly affect the kidneys and without treatment have a poor prognosis. Rituximab is a novel biological agent which is being used experimentally in the management of AASV. This report presents the case of a young woman with rapidly progressive life-threatening AASV. Despite prompt diagnosis and initial treatment with steroids and alkylating agents her condition became life threatening. With addition of rituximab therapy she showed an excellent sustained response. Rituximab appears an effective and safe treatment choice for the induction of remission in severe AASV that is not responding to standard agents, at the initial presentation and for maintenance therapy, without the development of common serious side-effects associated with immunosuppression.

In addition, we will examine our own recent findings that stress

In addition, we will examine our own recent findings that stress interacts with the epigenome to regulate the expression of transposable elements in a regionally specific fashion, a finding with significant implications for a portion of the genome which is tenfold larger than that occupied

by the genes themselves.”
“Contents Molecular tools are becoming increasingly available to investigate the genetic basis of reproductive disorders in dogs and cats. These were first successful in identifying the molecular basis of diseases inherited as simple Mendelian traits, and these are now being applied to those that are inherited as complex traits. In order to promote similar studies of reproductive disorders, we need to understand how we can play a proactive role in accumulating sufficient case material. We also need to understand these mutation discovery tools and identify collaborators selleck kinase inhibitor who have experience with their use. The candidate gene and genomic approaches to mutation discovery in dogs are presented, including new sequencing methods and

those used to confirm that a mutation has a role in disease pathology. As the final goal is to use our study results to prevent inherited disorders, we need to consider how we can promote efficiency in obtaining DNA test results and providing genetic counselling.”
“A main challenge in the therapy of drug dependent individuals is to help them reactivate interest in non-drug-associated activities. We previously developed a rat experimental model based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm selleck in which only four 15 mm episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male Sprague Dawley rat (1) reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training and (2) prevented the reinstatement of cocaine CPP. In the present study, we investigated which of the sensory modalities of the composite stimulus “”social interaction”"

contributes most to the rats’ preference for it. If touch was limited by steel bars spaced at a distance of 2 cm and running across the whole length of a partitioning, CPP was still acquired, albeit to a lesser degree. If both rats were placed on the same side of a partitioning, rats did not develop CPP for social interaction. Thus, decreasing the available area for social interaction from 750 to 375 cm(2) prevented the acquisition of CPP to social interaction despite the fact that animals could touch each other more intensely than through the bars of the partitioning. When touch was fully restricted by a glass screen dividing the conditioning chambers, and the only sensory modalities left were visual and olfactory cues, place preference shifted to place aversion. Overall, our findings indicate that the major rewarding sensory component of the composite stimulus “”social interaction”" is touch (taction).