However, fibrinolysis cannot be initiated instantaneously at FMC,

However, fibrinolysis cannot be initiated instantaneously at FMC, and PPCI is superior to fibrinolysis in reducing mortality if the extra time needed to perform PPCI instead of fibrinolysis (so-called PCI-related delay) is <120 min. During the past 10 years, the terms ‘FMC-to-PPCI delay’ and ‘PCI-related delay’ have been used in guidelines synonymously; however, a distinction should be made between the recommended FMC-to-PPCI delay and the acceptable PCI-related delay. In the future, an ideal recommendation would be to initiate reperfusion as

soon as possible, preferably within 120 min of FMC in the case of PPCI. When the expected PCI-related delay is <120 min, PPCI should be the preferred reperfusion strategy, even if the FMC-to-PPCI delay is >120 min. MK-4827 Setting up a health-care system enabling prehospital diagnosis of STEMI with field triage of patients directly to catheterization laboratories at large-volume PCI centres (bypassing local hospitals, coronary care units, emergency departments, and intensive care units) will help to increase the proportion of patients with STEMI who will

benefit from PPCI. Lassen, J. F. et al. Nat. Rev. Cardiol. 10, 41-48 (2013); published online 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2012.156″
“Background: Neurologic deterioration (ND) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been shown to result in poor outcomes. ND is thought to arise from penumbral excitotoxic cell death caused in part by leukocytic infiltration. Elevated admission peripheral leukocyte levels are associated with poor outcomes in stroke selleck patients who suffer ND, but little is known about the dynamic changes that occur in leukocyte

counts around the time of ND. We sought to determine if peripheral leukocyte levels in the days surrounding ND are correlated with poor outcomes. Methods: Patients with AIS who presented to our Quizartinib nmr center within 48 hours of symptom onset between July 2008 and June 2010 were retrospectively identified by chart review and screened for ND (defined as an increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >= 2 within a 24-hour period). Patients were excluded for steroid use during hospitalization or in the month before admission and infection within the 48 hours before or after ND. Demographics, daily leukocyte counts, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) were investigated. Results: Ninety-six of the 292 (33%) patients screened had ND. The mean age was 69.5 years; 62.5% were male and 65.6% were black. Patients with a poor functional outcome had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil levels 1 day before ND (P = .048 and P = .026, respectively), and on the day of ND (P = .013 and P = .007, respectively), compared to patients with good functional outcome.

Group B: Resection of maxilla without any preprosthetic surgical

Group B: Resection of maxilla without any preprosthetic surgical preparation. Forty-two Selleckchem GF120918 cancer patients (28 male-14 female).

Results: Outcome variables measured included facial contour and aesthetic results, speech understandability,

ability to eat solid foods, oronasal separation, socializing outside the home, and return-to-work status. Flap success and donor site morbidity were also studied.

Conclusions: To improve the prosthetic restoration of maxillary defect resulting maxillary resection as part treatment of maxillofacial tumor depends on the close cooperation between prosthodontist and surgeon, by combination of pre-prosthetic surgery during maxillectomy and prosthodontic technique.”
“Purpose To Selleckchem BI2536 describe a case of an orbito-nasal cyst in a cat.

Procedure An 18-month-old male European short-haired cat was presented to the Ophthalmology service of the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich for a subcutaneous swelling in the medial canthal region of the right eye (OD). Ophthalmologic, ultrasound and CT examinations, and fine needle aspiration were performed. After lesion excision, the removed tissue was submitted for histopathology. CT examination

was repeated 5 months after removal of the cyst.

Results Ophthalmologic examination revealed a large fluctuant swelling inferonasal to OD. Despite patent lacrimal puncta, only the first few mm of the lacrimal canaliculi could be cannulated. A normal globe with moderate enophthalmos was present. Ultrasound examination showed a well-defined lobulated cyst-like structure in the right orbit, inferonasal and anterior to the eye. CT examination revealed extension of this lesion through the medial LOXO-101 orbital wall into the right nasal cavity. Fine needle aspiration confirmed the cystic nature of the lesion. An orbito-nasal cyst was diagnosed. The orbital part of the cyst was dissected from the surrounding tissue and excised

from the periosteum in the medial orbital wall defect. Part of the maxillary bone was removed to allow removal of the cyst from the nasal cavity. Histologically, the cyst wall consisted of a single to multilayered, mostly cuboidal epithelium and surrounding connective tissue. Follow-up revealed a good functional result and no recurrence 7 months after cyst removal.

Conclusions Similar orbito-nasal cystic structures were reported in dogs but not in cats.”
“A new drimane sesquiterpenoid glycoside, named 7-drimen-3,11-diol 3-O–d-glucopyranoside, was isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. The chemical structure was completely elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and ROESY) and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The compound showed inhibitory activities toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562), and human hepatoma (SMMC-7721) cell lines.

Isoform analysis of beta-1,3-glucanase from the apoplastic fluid

Isoform analysis of beta-1,3-glucanase from the apoplastic fluid revealed that resistance was associated with the accumulation of an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase, previously implicated in defence against pathogens, and a protein with identity to ADPG pyrophosphatase (92%) and germin-like proteins (93%), which may be involved in cell wall reinforcement. In accordance with this, glycoproteins like extensin were released into the apoplast

and callose accumulated to a greater extent in cell walls, whereas lignin and polyphenolics were not found to correlate with defence. Treatment of a IPI-145 susceptible wheat cultivar with purified beta-1,3-glucan fragments from cell walls of S. tritici gave complete protection against disease and this was accompanied by increased gene expression of beta-1,3-glucanase and the deposition of callose. Collectively, these data indicate that resistance is dependent on a fast, initial recognition of the pathogen, probably due to beta-1,3-glucan in the fungal cell walls, and this results in the accumulation of beta-1,3-glucanase and structural defence responses, which may directly inhibit the pathogen and protect the host against fungal enzymes and toxins.”
“Introduction and hypothesis Our aim is to characterize prolapsed and non-prolapsed vaginal tissue, and thus offer buy Ro-3306 a better understanding of the genital prolapse physiopathology and

an improvement of surgical treatments.

Methods Vaginal tissue was collected in 30 patients with prolapse (POP) and ten fresh cadavers without prolapse (nPOP) with a favorable advice of Ethics Committee. Uniaxial tension tests were performed. Statistical comparisons of rigidity under moderate deformation and under large deformation have been performed

Results POP is significantly stiffer

than nPOP tissue, both on anterior and posterior walls. A significant difference between POP and nPOP tissues was highlighted when anterior or posterior vaginal walls were respectively compared.

Conclusions These results might explain the higher rate of relapse when repair is autologous, using already defective and more rigid Thiazovivin vaginal tissue. This study suggests that it might be interesting to adapt the characteristics of prosthetic implants to the vaginal face concerned by the prolapsus.”
“Objectives: Immune regulatory mechanisms may limit the immunopathologic condition of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and suppress cellular immune responses in the host. We investigated the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) circulating regulatory T cells (T-reg) in patients with cavity multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after surgery.

Methods: We compared the proportion of T-reg cells in 13 patients with cavity MDR-TB pre- and postoperatively and in 10 healthy control subjects by flow cytometry using three specific markers in peripheral blood lymphocytes: cell-surface CD4 and CD25 expression and intracellular FoxP3 expression.

Median age was 57 years and 29 patients out of 31 had visceral in

Median age was 57 years and 29 patients out of 31 had visceral involvement. The overall response rate (ORR) was 32% (1 complete response /9 partial responses), in addition 5 patients obtained stable disease

for >= 12 weeks. After a median follow-up of 34 months, all patients progressed with a median time to progression of 5.5 months and median overall survival of 11 months. Dose reductions, delays and omissions occurred in 75 (60%), 36 (29%) and 22 (18%) cycles. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 17 and febrile neutropenia in 4 patients. Ten selleck chemical patients had Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Non hematological toxicities were manageable. The CG combination is a reasonable option for the treatment of metastatic pretreated TNBC patients.”
“Background: The term total folate intake is used to represent folate that occurs naturally in food as well as folic acid from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folic acid has been referred to as a double-edged sword because of its beneficial role in the prevention of neural tube defects and yet possible deleterious ERK inhibitor effects on certain cancers and cognitive function. Previous monitoring efforts did not include folic acid from dietary supplements

and are therefore not complete.

Objective: Our objective was to combine data on dietary folate (as measured by two 24-h recalls) and folic acid from dietary supplements (collected with a 30-d frequency questionnaire) with the use of the bias-corrected best power method

to adjust for within-person variability.

Design: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. Linear contrasts were constructed to determine differences in dietary and total folate intake for age and racial-ethnic groups by sex; prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes is presented.

Results: In 2003-2006, 53% of the US population used dietary supplements; 34.5% used dietary supplements GSI-IX that contained folic acid. Total folate intake (in dietary folate equivalents) was higher for men (813 +/- 14) than for women (724 +/- 16) and higher for non-Hispanic whites (827 +/- 19) than for Mexican Americans (615 +/- 11) and non-Hispanic blacks (597 +/- 12); 29% of non-Hispanic black women had inadequate intakes. Total folate and folic acid intakes are highest for those aged > 50 y, and 5% exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

Conclusions: Improved total folate intake is warranted in targeted subgroups, which include women of childbearing age and non-Hispanic black women, whereas other population groups are at risk of excessive intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:231-7.”
“We successfully measured not only the tunneling properties but also the magnetic properties of a magnetic tunnel junction without patterning the magnetic tunnel junction stack itself by the current-in-plane tunneling method.

The association between TST induration and clinical outcome was a

The association between TST induration and clinical outcome was assessed. The clinical utility of chest radiographs was evaluated.

Results: There was no difference in age, birth country, or nutritional status between

IAC with TST induration of 0 to < 5 mm and those with 5 to < 10 mm; IAC with TST >= 10 mm were older, more chronically malnourished, and more likely to emigrate from Guatemala. Among children with TST >= 5 mm (35%), 4 IAC had chest radiographs which were initially interpreted to be abnormal and consistent with TB; ultimately none were diagnosed with TB.

Conclusions: The 5-mm TST cut point did not capture IAC with risk factors for latent TB infection or progression to TB disease, suggesting that this buy GSK461364 is not a useful screening threshold. In contrast, a 10-mm cut point identified IAC at risk for TB infection and therefore should be a more useful screening MDV3100 supplier threshold. We question the clinical utility of radiographic screening for pulmonary TB in asymptomatic children.”
“The present study, comprising a prospective multicentre study including 53 non-neutropenic patients from intensive care units (ICU) in six Spanish tertiary-care hospitals, was carried out to determine

the clinical significance and influence on mortality of Candida albicans germ tube-specific antibodies (CAGTA). There were 22 patients (41.5%) for whom the CAGTA results were positive, although none of had a blood culture positive for Candida. The intra-ICU mortality rate was significantly lower (p = 0.004) in CAGTA-positive patients (61.2% vs. Selleckchem LY2835219 22.7%). Multivariate analysis confirmed

that a positive CAGTA result was the only protective factor to be independently associated with ICU mortality (beta coefficient = -0.3856; 95% confidence interval = -0.648 to -0.123).”
“In this study, Fe2O3.Al2O3/polyethylene composites were prepared using a two-step process. In the first step, PE is synthesized using titanium based metallocene catalyst system. While the synthesized PE was subsequently purified, hydrated alumina filled PE (MHFP) composites was formed by the hydrolysis of methylaluminoxane (MAO). In the second step, Fe2O3.Al2O3/PE was prepared via thermal decomposition of ferric formate in a high temperature solution of MHFP composite. The structure, morphology, and thermal properties of the composites were characterized using the XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, TGA, and DSC analytical techniques. Results showed that the incorporation of a suitable amount of Fe2O3.Al2O3 into the composites enhances the thermal stability. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011″
“Study Design. Retrospective case series.

Objective. The purpose of this study was to report on a large consecutive series of posterolateral fusion cases using rhBMP-2/ACS.

Summary of Background Data.

They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morp

They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and button-like pigment aggregation. The linear BAY 80-6946 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis.”
“Background.

Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn’s nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus ALK phosphorylation (GDM). Methods.

Women (n = 107, <= 29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type Dactolisib 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk

of prematurity.”
“Objective: To assess the character and frequency of fear of progression (FoP) and to clarify its relationship with cancer-related intrusive cognitions in breast cancer survivors.

Methods: A sample of 1083 patients was recruited in this cross-sectional study through a population-based Cancer Registry an average of 47 month following diagnosis (66% response rate). Participants completed self-report measures assessing fear of cancer progression (FoP-Q-SF), posttraumatic stress-disorder symptoms (PCL-C), coping strategies (DWI) and quality of life (QoL) (SF-8).

Results: In total, 23.6% of women were classified as having moderate to high FoP. Being nervous prior to doctors’ appointments or examinations and being afraid of relying on strangers for activities of daily living were the most frequent fears. FoP was significantly associated with younger age, having children, disease progress, chemotherapy, perceived amount of impairments, physical and mental QoL, but not with time since initial diagnosis.

Our transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that

Our transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that the morphology of the blends was strongly influenced by the asymmetric nature of the interface between PA6 and ABS. In the blends with a PA6 matrix, the interface between PA6 and the ABS inclusions was deformed in tensile deformation under uniaxial loading. A strong influence of the PA6

water content on the (micro)mechanical behavior was observed. Although the “”dry”" blends behaved in a brittle fashion, the “”wet”" blends behaved in a ductile fashion with the formation of deformation bands in the matrix (PA6 or ABS), which were initiated by stress concentration at the particles (ABS or PA6, respectively). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112:1658-1669, 2009″
“Objective-To compare the effect of xylazine GSK621 clinical trial bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in AZD6244 research buy dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

Design-Prospective, randomized crossover study.

Animals-10 healthy Standardbreds.

Procedures-Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV Anesthesia was induced with

diazepam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane for 150 minutes. For the xylazine treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.7% and xylazine (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]), IV) was administered as a bolus at the end of anesthesia. For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4% and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h

[0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. selleck products Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured before, during, and after anesthesia. Urine specific gravity and volume were measured during anesthesia. Unassisted anesthetic recoveries were recorded by a digital video camera for later evaluation by 2 observers who were blinded to treatment.

Results-Serum cortisol concentration was lower and serum glucose concentration was higher with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment. Time to sternal recumbency was longer with MCRI treatment, but no difference was seen between treatments for times to extubation, first movement, or standing. Objective (mean attempt interval) and subjective (visual analog score) recovery scores were significantly better with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication and administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased serum cortisol concentration, increased serum glucose concentration, and superior anesthetic recovery characteristics, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:998-1002)”
“Here we approximate the plasma kinetics responsible for diamondlike carbon (DLC) depositions that result from pulsed-dc discharges.

Conclusions: Our study exemplifies the particularity of RF in you

Conclusions: Our study exemplifies the particularity of RF in young children and the complex role of superantigens and streptodornases in GAS-related pathologies. (C) 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. Impacted canines require a combination PI3K inhibitor of both surgical and orthodontic management. In this study, patients treated for bone-impacted canines of the hard palatal were evaluated to assess which radiographic factors influenced the feasibility to move impacted maxillary permanent canines from the hard palate into the alveolar arch.

Materials and methods.

Eighty patients aged 12 to 24 (average 16 years) were treated surgically and orthodontically to align 146 bone-impacted canines of the hard palate (from 1994 to 2008). Factors such as age, sex, angulation of the canine to the midline (CAM), anomaly of the canine root (RA), overlap of the adjacent lateral incisor root (OALIR), and ratio of root formation (RRF) upon treatment were documented. Radiographic records and demographic data were assessed. The following radiographic measurements of canine position were made from the orthopantomogram (OPG): (1) angulation to the midline, (2) anteroposterior position selleck compound of the root, (3) overlap of the adjacent incisor. RA

or dilaceration was assessed from the OPG, maxillary occlusal (MO), and periapical (PA) radiographs. Whether the impacted canine had responded to surgical exposure and was orthodontically aligned, or surgically removed Microtubule Associat inhibitor and discarded was also recorded. The data were analyzed to assess and correlate significance.

Results. Eighty patients aged 12 to 24 (19 males and 61 females) with 146 bone-impacted permanent canines of the hard palatal were treated. One hundred and three teeth (70.54%) had responded to surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment within 9 to 12 months. Forty-three impacted canine teeth (29.46%) had to be surgically removed because

of ankylosis and no movement after 8 to 9 months using 50 to 60 g of traction force via elastic chains. Data analysis via chi-square and Pearson correlation tests showed that as the CAM increased (> 45 degrees), the canine was more likely to be unresponsive to treatment (P < .001). Increased overlap (> half the root) of the adjacent lateral incisor root (OALIR) via the canine crown influenced the treatment results negatively (P < .001). Additionally, presence of RA was also negatively influential (P < .001). However, the anteroposterior position of the canine did not influence the treatment results significantly, neither did age, sex, nor amount of root formation.

Conclusion.

These novel mechanisms may

contribute to there warding/re

These novel mechanisms may

contribute to there warding/reinforcing properties of salsolinol observed in vivo.”
“Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation Lonafarnib noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A]] and 40 db[A] for daytime and nighttime, respectively). Particularly, nighttime transportation noise was discovered to be harmful to a wider area and more people than daytime noise. Approximately LY3023414 in vitro 91% of the Youngdeungpo-gu area experienced nighttime

transportation noise levels exceeding those recommended by WHO. It was estimated that as much as 80% of the people in the study area were exposed to transportation noise levels >40 dB[A] during nighttime. Taking this into account, there is an urgent need to control and reduce transportation noise levels in Seoul, to protect residents against the potential ill health effects caused by urban transportation. (c) 2010 https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Romidepsin-FK228.html Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Major advances in the past decade have led a better understanding of the pathophysiology of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) caused by the early loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons. Although a role for hypocretin in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state is widely recognized, other

functions, not necessarily related to arousal, have been identified. Hence, the hypocretin system enhances signaling in the mesolimbic pathways regulating reward processing, emotion and mood regulation, and addiction. Although studies on hypocretin-deficient mice have shown that hypocretin plays an essential role in reward-seeking, depression-like behavior and addiction, results in human narcolepsy remained subject to debate. Most of studies revealed that hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy patients either drug-free or medicated with psycho stimulant had preferences toward risky choices in a decision-making task under ambiguity together with higher frequency of depressive symptoms and binge eating disorder compared to controls.

We have shown correlations between the NMR-LSP and body size and

We have shown correlations between the NMR-LSP and body size and dietary composition. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Female genital tuberculosis is a rare disease in developed countries but it is a frequent cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in undeveloped countries. A rare case of tubercular endometritis diagnosed at hysteroscopy and successfully treated in a woman with secondary infertility, is presented. As far as we know this is the first case that selleck chemicals shows the association between endometrial micropolyps

and tubercular endometritis.”
“In the present work, we have investigated a comparative performance of the silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanoparticles embedded SiO2 floating gate MOS memory devices. In such devices for low applied fields, the tunneling current is dominated by the direct tunneling mechanism, whereas for higher electric fields, the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism

dominates. As the device dimensions get smaller, problem arises in the conventional MOS memory devices due to the leakage through the thin tunnel oxide. This leakage can be reduced via charge trapping by embedding nanoparticles in the gate dielectric of such devices. Here one objective is to prevent the leakage due to the direct tunneling mechanism and the other objective is to reduce the write voltage, by lowering the onset voltage of the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism. Our simulations for the current voltage characteristics learn more covered both the low and the high applied field regions. Simulations showed that both the Si and the Ge nanoparticles embedded gate dielectrics offer reduction of the leakage current and a significant lowering of the writing or programming onset voltage, compared to the pure SiO2 gate dielectric. Selleck Compound C In terms of the comparative performance, the Germanium nanoparticles embedded gate dielectric showed better results compared to the silicon nanoparticles embedded one. The results of the simulations are discussed in the

light of recent experimental results. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3555087]“
“Background and aims: The ratio of apolipoprotein B/AI (apo B/AI) has been used as a marker to predict the risk of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have suggested an association between apolipoprotein B level and microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects. This study was performed to assess a possible association between the apo B/AI ratio and microalbuminuria in male subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).

Methods and results: In 1266 patients with fasting serum glucose level in the pre-diabetic range, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR, mu g mg(-1)) was measured from single morning voided urine. The presence of microalbuminuria was defined as a UACR between 30 and 299 mu g mg(-1). Participants were stratified into four groups by apo B/AI quartiles, from the lowest to the highest.