(C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3055806]“
“Background: In recent years, great attention has been given to the presence of psychological problems and psychiatric comorbidity that are also present in children affected by primary headaches. The relationship between pain and attachment has been identified, and it may be that pain perception may change in relation with specific attachment styles. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalent attachment style and verify its putative relationship
and correlation with the main characteristics of migraine attacks, in school-aged children affected BX-795 by migraine without aura (MoA).
Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 219 children (103 males, 116 females) aged between 6 and 11 years (mean 8.96 +/- 2.14 years), consecutively referred for MoA compared with 381 healthy controls (174 males, 207 females; mean age 9.01 +/- 1.75 years) randomly selected from schools. All the children were classified according
to the attachment typologies of the Italian modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test; monthly headache frequency and mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children. Headache intensity was assessed on a visual analog scale. The ACY-738 chi-square test and t-test, where appropriate, were applied, and the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to explore the relationship between the types of attachment style and clinical aspects of MoA.
Results: The MoA group showed a significantly higher prevalence of type A (avoidant) attachment (P<0.001) and a significantly lower prevalence of type B (secure) attachment (P<0.001) compared with the control group. Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between MoA characteristics and the attachment style of MoA
Conclusion: The main findings of the present study were the higher prevalence among MoA children of the avoidant attachment style (type A) and the significantly lower prevalence of the secure style attachment (type B) compared with the normal controls, 3-MA price suggesting that the study of psychiatric comorbidity in pediatric headache may be enriched by this new aspect of analysis.”
“The presence of antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) was examined in 215 samples from humans and in 488 samples from five different species of domestic and companion animals in Slovakia. The 215 human samples and samples from 90 swine, 123 non-infected cattle (cattle), 24 cattle infected with bovine leukosis virus (BLV-positive cattle), 140 sheep and 111 dogs were examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples with serum titres 1:200 or higher were considered as positive. Specific anti-E.