c ) 50 μg of Qβ-IL-5 or Qβ-Eot into mice (n = 5) at days 0, 21 an

c.) 50 μg of Qβ-IL-5 or Qβ-Eot into mice (n = 5) at days 0, 21 and 35. selleck kinase inhibitor The generation of anti-IL-5 and anti-eotaxin IgG antibodies was determined by ELISA. As shown in Fig. 2, 21 days after the initial immunization, high antibody titers against either IL-5 or eotaxin were detected. Subsequent

immunization further increased the titers. For each antigen, a statistically significant increase in titer from days 21 to 54 was observed (p < 0.01). Thus, both vaccines can efficiently overcome B cell unresponsiveness and induce high antibody titers against the displayed auto-antigens. The immune response to vaccination with both Qβ-IL-5 and Qβ-Eot injected simultaneously was next examined. Following immunization, high levels of auto-antibodies against both IL-5 and eotaxin were induced. The kinetics and magnitude of the response were similar to those observed for immunization with the corresponding single antigen (Fig. 2A and B). Again the increase in titers from days 21 to 54 was statistically significant (p < 0.01). These data demonstrate that co-immunization with VLP-based vaccines can http://www.selleckchem.com/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html simultaneously break tolerance towards more than one self-antigen and induce high antibody responses against the corresponding molecules. We next checked the neutralizing ability of anti-IL-5 serum in a cell (BCL1 cells) proliferation assay cell. As shown in Fig. 2C, anti-IL-5 antiserum inhibited the proliferation of BCL1 cells induced

by IL-5 in a concentration dependant manner. We further investigated the neutralizing ability of the anti-IL-5 antibodies induced

by Qβ-IL-5 by counting blood eosinophils MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit after immunization. Fig. 2D shows that relative to mice immunized with a control Qβ vaccine, the number of peripheral blood eosinophils in Qβ-IL-5 immunized mice was reduced by 87% (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between unvaccinated animals and those receiving control Qβ vaccine demonstrating anti-Qβ antibodies do not neutralize IL-5. These results show the anti-IL-5 antibodies induced by immunization with Qβ-IL-5 neutralize the activity of IL-5 in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the vaccines either singly or in combination to induce neutralizing antibodies in vivo in an inflammatory setting was assessed by the use of an OVA-based mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. BALB/c mice (n = 5) were either not vaccinated (injected with PBS) or vaccinated with 50 μg of Qβ-IL-5 or Qβ-Eot singly or with both vaccines simultaneously (a total of 100 μg of vaccine corresponding to 50 μg of Qβ-IL-5 and 50 μg of Qβ-Eot) on days 0, 21 and 35. A three-dose regimen was chosen in order to rapidly establish high antibody titers. After anti-IL-5 and eotaxin antibody titers were confirmed by ELISA, airway inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intranasal (i.n.) injection of OVA as described. One day after the final i.n.

The physiochemical parameters of (Table 1) different physio–chemi

The physiochemical parameters of (Table 1) different physio–chemical values such as ash value, extractive values, loss Selleckchem 3-deazaneplanocin A on drying, foreign organic matter, crude fiber content, were determined. Florescence analysis study of (Table 2) powdered drug material with different reagents was carried out observe the color reactions. A plant cell inclusion study of (Table 3) powdered drug material with different

reagents was carried out to observe the color reactions. B. diffusa leaves were dried under shade, powdered and passed through 40 meshes and stored in closed vessel for further use. The dried powder material (20 g) was subjected to Soxhlet extraction with ethanol for continuous hot extraction for 6 h. The extracts were concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain the extracts solid residues. The percentage value of the extracts was 9.35%w/w. The crude powder and

ethanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa (leaf) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical test ( Table 4 and Table 5) followed by the methods of Harbome (1998), and Trease and Evans (1983) and the phytoconstituents reported in table. The ethanolic leaf extract of B. diffusa (leaf) was subjected to screening of thin layer chromatography ( Table 6) with different mobile phases. TLC for alkaloids Stationary phase Silica gel G Mobile phase Butanol:acetic acid:water (4:5:1) Chloroform: methanol: ammonia (8:4:1:5) Chloroform:Di ethyl amine (9:1) Detecting reagent Dragendroff’s reagent TLC for terpenes Stationary phase Silica gel G Mobile phase Toluene:chloroform:ethyl alcohol (4:5:4:5:1) Detecting reagent Iodine chamber TLC for saponins: Stationary phase Silica gel G Mobile phase Chloroform:methanol:water these BMS-354825 mw (7:4:1) Chloroform:acetate acid:methanol:water (6:4:3:2:1:0:8) Ethylacetate:methanol (9.7:0.3) Detecting reagent Iodine chamber TLC for flavonoids: Stationary phase Silica gel G Mobile phase Chloroform:ethylacetate (6:4) Toluene:ethylacetate:formic acid (5:4:1) Toluene:ethyl acetate (9.5:0.5) Detecting regent Iodine champer TLC for phenolic compounds: Stationary phase Silica gel G Mobile phase Butane-2-ol:Acetic acid:water (14:1:5) Detecting reagent Ammonia vapor Full-size table Table options

View in workspace Download as CSV All the experiments were carried out in Indian adult earth worms (Pheretima posthuma) due to its anatomical resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. They were collected from moist soil and washed with water to remove all fecal matters. Metronidazole (10 mg/ml) was prepared by using 0.5% w/v of CMC as a suspending agent as administered as per method of extract. The anthelmintic activity was performed according to the method. On adult Indian earth worm P. posthuma as it has anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. P. posthuma was placed in petri dish containing two different concentrations (25, 50 & 100 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract of leaves of B.

0 1, 0 25 and 0 5 mA/cm2 current densities were used as variable

0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mA/cm2 current densities were used as variable condition in Iontophoresis while keeping selleck inhibitor current pattern as continuous DC current. DTAB micellar solution containing Lovastatin in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was charged in donor compartment of modified Glickfeld diffusion cell. In one experiment, 0.5 mA/cm2 DC current source was kept in continuous mode and in the other

experiment it was kept in 10 s on/off (pulsed) mode. Ten to twelve week old male albino rats (250 g) were sacrificed by excess of ether inhalation. After removing hairs, full-thickness of rat abdomen skin was surgically removed. The rat epidermis was isolated by a heat separation technique and carefully cleaned with normal saline. Finally fat tissue adhered to skin removed by wiping it with cotton swab soaked in isopropyl alcohol and dried under the vacuum followed by storing in desiccators.7, 8 and 9 Skin samples were used within three days of isolation.

Protocols for the use of animal for the above experiment was previously approved from the Institutional animal ethics committee, Noble Group of Institutions, Junagadh. Iontophoresis experiments were carried out at 37 ± 2 °C. All analytical works for quantification this website of Lovastatin were done by validated RP-HPLC analytical method by using 0.1% phosphoric acid solution and acetonitrile (65:35 v/v) as mobile phase. Selected composition was charged for stability

study under accelerated stability study condition as per ICH guideline. Selected composition was studied for Zeta potential determination, pH and assay of Lovastatin and in-vitro permeation rate. DTAB was selected as a surfactant for composition for Iontophoresis experiments because single surfactant micelle possesses best solubilizing power than mixers of surfactants specially in context of micellar solubilization of drugs.10 Solubility of Lovastatin was found to be 0.1 mg in 3.7 × 10−3 mol/L of DTAB which is more than 230 folds generally observed in purified water. Fig. 1 show CMC of DTAB in 0.1 mg Lovastatin containing solution under various temperature conditions and it was evidenced that the maximum shift of CMC was up to 3.87 × 10−3 mol/L at Rebamipide 40 °C. So, use of 3.87 × 10−3 mol/L DTAB in composition can keep Lovastatin in soluble form in core of liquid crystals formed by micelles of DTAB. Passive diffusion of Lovastatin allowed 3.63 ± 0.10 μg/cm2/h Lovastatin permeation rate after 12 h Iontophoresis with 44.36 ± 4.02 μg/cm2 cumulative permeation of drug. Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 as vehicle system provided highest drug permeation with Permeation Enhancement Ratio (E.R.) 1.80 in comparison of passive diffusion (Table 2) (Fig. 2). Lesser E.R. was observed in case of NaCl containing solution may be due to counter ion effect produced by Cl− of NaCl on DTAB micelles.

In 2003, 69% of the U S cases of IPD prevented by PCV use have b

In 2003, 69% of the U.S. cases of IPD prevented by PCV use have been estimated to result from the indirect effects of vaccination [3]. Not all changes in pneumococcal serotype prevalence, however, are attributable to vaccine, and factors such as secular find protocol trends and changes in surveillance programs need to be taken into account. Measuring NP carriage of bacteria is challenging because the nasopharynx can be a difficult site

to sample consistently, multiple bacterial species and serotypes reside in the nasopharnyx at any given time and in varying abundance. As presented by Dr. Catherine Satzke, current standards for NP sampling were published in 2003 and established the use of NP swabs as the preferred method of sampling [4]. Forskolin price While generally still relevant, the increasing use of non-culture methods of isolation has led to some revision of the type of swabs used. NP sampling methods have been the subject of a separate WHO consultation and these proceedings will be published

in 2013. The simultaneous NP carriage of multiple serotypes of pneumococcus presents a particular challenge in the standardization of NP sampling methods. New, more sensitive methods of serotyping are emerging that will aid in assessing the true rate of multiple carriage and help address questions that until now have not been possible to answer. Responding to the lack of a standard for the epidemiological sampling and statistical estimation of vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal colonization, VE-col, PneumoCarr collaborators undertook simulation and modeling studies for

the following three purposes: (1) to develop statistical methods for the estimation of VE-col in phase III and IV studies, (2) to improve the interpretation of VE-col estimates for better comparability across different studies, and (3) to specify the minimum requirements for the use of cross-sectional data for VE-col estimation. Dr. Kari Auranen presented the main findings from these efforts at the consultation (See Ref. [19]: Section VI). Vaccine efficacy against acquisition (VE-acq) and vaccine efficacy against transmission potential (VE-tp) are the two parameters that are most relevant to the direct and indirect protection due to vaccination, and respectively [5] and [6]. Unlike disease endpoints which can be measured as incident cases, colonization endpoints are usually measured based on prevalence data from cross-sectional studies. VE-tp can be estimated from prevalence data under weak assumptions, the most important of which is that the study population is in a stationary phase where overall pneumococcal carriage prevalence and serotype distribution are not changing. If it is assumed that the vaccine does not impact duration of colonization – as some studies indicate – then VE-tp approximates VE-acq, and thus this parameter of primary interest (VE-acq) is also measurable from cross-sectional data.

However, IL-4 was also detected providing an evidence for a Th2-m

However, IL-4 was also detected providing an evidence for a Th2-mediated immune response. Rothman et al. [40], analyzing a tetravalent inactivated dengue vaccine, also detected high levels IFN-γ, but no IL-4 after the stimulation with dengue virus. We suggest that our high levels of IL-10 can be associated with a Th2 pattern immune response, it is accepted that this type of response is able Sorafenib ic50 to induce a strong antibody production. However, we

did not evaluate the production of IgG1 versus IgG2a antibodies and so we cannot confirm the shift of immune response in favor of Th2 pattern. The cellular proliferation assay, accessed by flow cytometry, evaluated the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with DENV-4-DNAv, DENV-4 (positive control), and pCI (negative control). Spleen cells of all groups of immunized animals presented buy GW786034 a significant proliferation

in the presence of lymphocyte mitogen concanavalin A, compared to cells that were not stimulated (media stimulation). When specifically stimulated with DENV-4, the spleen cells from DENV-4-DNAv-immunized mice proliferated in a significant higher percentage than cells from pCI-immunized animals (negative control) and did not exhibited a significant difference in proliferation compared to the cells of the animals in the DENV-4-immunized group. Taking together, these data confirmed that the DENV-4 and DENV-4-DNAv were capable of inducing a specific immune response in the immunized mice. Data on T cell response after immunization against dengue are scarce, mainly because most of the studies on dengue vaccine development focus their search for a specific immune response on neutralizing antibodies [35]. Here we show a

positive performance of DENV-4-DNAv vaccine concerning its ability to induce specific T cell response, antibody production and protection after challenge. The challenge experiments show that 80% of the mice immunized with DENV-4-DNAv were protected from the disease induced by the intracerebral inoculation with lethal doses of DENV-4, the same percentage observed in DENV-4 immunized mice. On the other hand, in pCI and PBS-inoculated animals, the protection rate was 20% and 0%, respectively. The observation that 20% 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase of the inoculated mice in the DENV-4 and DENV-4-DNAv died after challenge despite the fact that all of them developed neutralizing antibodies might be explained by the animal model used in dengue vaccine experiments. The animal model most frequently used to test the efficacy of dengue vaccines during dengue vaccine development is based in intracerebral inoculation of mice with a mouse-brain-adapted dengue virus. However, this model does not represent a natural disease as encephalitis is not commonly associated with dengue infections.

In the case of the rPsaA immunized mice, no functional anti-PS an

In the case of the rPsaA immunized mice, no functional anti-PS antibodies were detected. Anti-PsaA antibodies have shown to be opsonophagocytic [58]. The standard and modified OPA in this study were not optimum Wee1 inhibitor for measuring the functional

antibodies to PsaA. An assay utilizing adherence to human cells may also be used for the detection of functional anti-PsaA antibodies [59]. Even though the mouse model is well established [15] and [35], the murine susceptibility to S. pneumoniae varies primarily because S. pneumoniae does not naturally colonize in mice [51] and [60]. The variation we have observed in our colony counts from one serotype to another may be due to differences in susceptibility. The type of mouse JQ1 supplier strain and phenotype of the bacteria used also may contribute to this varying susceptibility. McCool and Weiser observed differences in density and length of Pnc colonization among three murine strains [51]. The transparent phenotype is thought to play the main role in Pnc colonization, although mixed phenotypes naturally occur in the nasopharynx and in murine colonization studies [25], [51] and [61]. This study demonstrates immunization of mice simultaneously

with rPsaA and PCV7 reduces colonization of non-PCV serotype (19A) without inhibiting immunogenicity of either immunogen. Additional colonization studies with other non-PCV serotypes should be performed to determine whether co-administering rPsaA with PCV7 does further expand coverage to other non-PCV serotypes. If so, the inclusion of additional serotypes to Pnc Ps vaccines may not be necessary for the expansion of protection. This research was supported in part by an appointment of M.J. Whaley to the Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship Program administered by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and funded by CDC. We thank

Yvonne Reed and Kay Montgomery for the daily care of the animals and sharing their expertise. The findings of this study are those PD184352 (CI-1040) of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of CDC. “
“Human infection with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was first identified in April 2009 [1] and on June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic by raising the worldwide pandemic alert level to phase 6. This novel strain is antigenically and genetically distinct from other H1N1 influenza strains that have been in circulation since 1977 [2]. Consequently, most of the world’s population is thought to have had little or no pre-existing antibody against the pandemic strain. Indeed, serological studies have detected cross-reactive antibodies to the A (H1N1) 2009 virus in 6–9% of adults aged 18–64 years and 33% of adults older than 60 years [3] and [4]. In accordance with WHO recommendations, pandemic influenza vaccines were manufactured using the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) strain.

The surveillance network uses Trizol or kit based extraction and

The surveillance network uses Trizol or kit based extraction and a random priming approach for cDNA generation, because both G- and P-typing PCRs can then be set up using the same cDNA. However, other kits, particularly the automated extraction methods and one-step RT-PCR kits, are expensive to use for the large numbers of samples in a surveillance program. find more Laboratories need to allocate resources for initial screening and genotyping followed by further characterization

based on the level of detail necessary to meet surveillance objectives. One inexpensive approach for controlling problems with extraction is to spike all samples with a non-competing internal control RNA virus BYL719 to check for the efficiency of the extraction procedure performed, where PCR amplification for the control virus can be performed either along with the typing PCR or separately in samples that fail to genotype. The use of additional primer sets typed an additional eight strains for

both G and P types. Seven samples remained untyped and 35 were partially typed respectively after using additional primers [14]. Only for one sample from Delhi, sequencing of the first-round product led to the identification of G11P[25], a type previously reported infrequently from India and Bangladesh [15]. No new genotypes were isolated and the predominant G and P types identified were G1 and P[8], which were reflective of the types the isolated previously from the various locations. Using the approach detailed above, the number of samples fully or partially typed increased from 86% (1918/2226) to 97% (2161/2226). This approach shows that if a robust set of standard

primers are available that genotype the bulk of specimens in initial testing, the unresolved genotypes are likely to be false positive ELISA samples or those which have had a problem with the efficiency of extraction. The use of additional primer sets resolves genotypes only in a very small fraction of the samples. Unlike in 2007, when an increase in the number of G-untyped strains resulted in the identification of a new genotype, G12, by sequencing of the first-round product [16], no new genotypes were detected in multiple untyped samples from the network. Future approaches to genotyping for untypable samples might also include next-generation sequencing, which has not been used for field surveillance so far. While documenting genotypes has been a mainstay of rotavirus epidemiology in the past, the data emerging from the oral rotavirus vaccines indicate that real-time knowledge of genotypes may not be necessary to inform understanding of response to and protection afforded by vaccines. Since vaccines have only been in use for a few years and in limited geographic settings, it is possible that continued surveillance will provide data suitable for long term surveillance.

Sera from children where the medical record indicated possible im

Sera from children where the medical record indicated possible immunodeficiency were excluded. Another limitation may be associated to the reported pertussis incidence peak in 2009 compared to the next years. This may have caused an increased transmission of pertussis during the first months of collection. However, when the average anti-PT IgG levels were compared among sera collected at the start of the project with sera collected at the end of the project no differences were seen (data not shown). In conclusion our data indicate that the immunity against pertussis is low 5 years after primary vaccination

and that the DTaP-booster administered at age 7–8 years gives a moderate anti-pertussis immune response that wanes to near pre-booster level in a few years. This find more sero-epidemiological study contributes to the conclusion that some, if not all, of the aP vaccines are inadequate to reduce the burden of pertussis. Although serious disease in the smallest, most vulnerable, not completely vaccinated children still is rare due to mass vaccinations

with aP, improved pertussis vaccines are needed. Improved vaccines should leave a longer-lasting immune response and should also harbour additional antigens that minimise the problems with vaccine escape mutant B. pertussis strains. We gratefully acknowledge Samuel Merino at the Norwegian buy PI3K Inhibitor Library Institute of Public Health, for doing the anti-FHA IgG analysis. “
“According to current vaccination policy, infants in high-risk countries should receive oral polio vaccine at birth (OPV0) followed by three doses in infancy [1]. The first dose at birth is usually given TCL together with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) against tuberculosis (TB). Recently, OPV was temporarily missing in Guinea-Bissau. In this “natural experiment”, not receiving OPV0 was associated with

increased infant male survival but a weak tendency for increased mortality among females, indicating that OPV0 may have a sex-differential effect on infant mortality [2]. The BCG given at birth is known to induce a potent pro-inflammatory Th1-polarising IFN-γ response to purified protein derivate from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) [3]. However, in the “natural experiment” receiving OPV0 with BCG at birth was associated with significantly lower IFN-γ in response to PPD at 6 weeks of age, and a moderately lower likelihood of developing a BCG scar, suggesting that OPV0 may dampen the response to BCG [4]. It could be speculated that part of the lower BCG vaccine efficacy in low-income countries [5] might be due to simultaneous OPV0.

These approaches bear the risk of introducing mutations selected

These approaches bear the risk of introducing mutations selected via plaque purification

steps. To minimize this type of mutations we chose to generate a reverse genetics system using a different approach, independent of preformed viral RNA components and animal sources. The feasibility of generating such systems by chemical synthesis of DNA was proven previously, for instance, by the generation of poliovirus [29], bacteriophage ϕX174 [30] or H1N1 Spanish influenza virus [31], and SARS-like coronavirus [32]. On the basis of these studies, we report for the first time see more the generation of an 11,000 nucleotide long synthetic genome of a member of the family Flaviviridae. Sequence data from GenBank referring to lineage I West Nile Virus strain NY99 were used as template for in silico design of the cloning strategy. RNA viruses Lapatinib purchase replicate their genome with an error prone mechanism (for reviews see [33]), resulting in a multitude of distinct but related nucleic acids forming a quasispecies [34]. Sequencing of a virus genome (usually cloned by plaque purifications prior to sequence analysis) consisting of millions

of molecules, results in a ‘consensus’ sequence, representing the majority genotype having defined biological properties. Biological properties may change, for instance, when pressure imposed by the host selects for changes of the genomic sequence, visible as a new ‘consensus sequence’ in the sequence analysis. In

all of the cloning and propagation steps no mutations changing the wild-type consensus sequence were introduced by PCR using synthetic templates of verified nucleotide sequence proving the accuracy of this approach. Thus the synthetic progeny virus was biologically indistinguishable from its natural parent. Experimental inactivated vaccines derived from WNVwt and WNVsyn were highly immunogenic in animals. Both vaccine preparations induced comparable levels of neutralizing antibodies and led to similar protection results. Only in the low dosing groups of the protection study differences were observed Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II that can be explained by the experimental conditions and the inherent inaccuracies of the biological system rather than by genetic differences in the two viruses. In addition, both virus stocks were indistinguishable concerning their virulence in mice. Progress in synthetic biology raises biosecurity concerns. The possibility to synthesize pathogens without need for natural sources, for instance the viruses on the Select Agents List [35], results in the expansion of the potential availability of select agents (defined as biological agents and toxins regulated by the US Select Agent Rules that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal or plant health). The US government has developed guidance that addresses this issue [36].

Furthermore, lesion of these structures blocks the effects of IS

Furthermore, lesion of these structures blocks the effects of IS (Amat et al., 2001 and Hammack et al., 2004). However, contrary to the expectation that ES would not then activate these structures and inputs to the DRN, or do so to a lessor degree than does IS, ES produced the same level of activation and input

(Amat et al., 2001). For example, in an extensive series of studies examining LC activation, McDevitt et al. (2009) found that both IS and ES intensely activate the LC as assessed by c-fos mRNA, Fos protein, and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA, but to exactly the same degree. Before leaving the DRN and 5-HT, it should be noted that intense DRN activation is not restricted to IS as a stressor. For example, social defeat (which is arguably uncontrollable) does so as well www.selleckchem.com/products/17-AAG(Geldanamycin).html (Amat et al., 2010). However, all stressors do not do so, and it has been suggested that stressors have to be prolonged and intense (Takase et al., 2005). In addition, IS and other uncontrollable stressors certainly do more than activate

the DRN, and produce outcomes that are not mediated by the DRN. For example, IS conditions fear to cues that are present, and this is mediated by the standard amygdala circuitry (Maier et al., 1993). Finally, there has recently been a large amount of research devoted to a more general understanding of the role of the DRN in stress-related phenomena than the focus on controllability phenomena that is the subject of this review (Valentino et al., 2010). The research reviewed above indicates that uncontrollable Afatinib in vivo stressor exposure differentially activates DRN 5-HT neurons relative to controllable stressors, but that both types of stressors appear to provide equivalent excitatory input to the DRN. This juxtaposition of findings leaves only one obvious possibility, namely, that controllable stressors lead TCL to an input to the DRN that differentially inhibits 5-HT activity.

That is, both ES and IS induce inputs to the DRN that activate the DRN, but only ES produces an input that inhibits DRN 5-HT. Under this view control does not produce its protective effects passively by lacking something that uncontrollability produces as in the original view, but instead does so actively. If the detection/processing of control were to lead to the inhibition of DRN 5-HT neuronal activity, the cortex would be an obvious source. Interestingly, the DRN receives virtually all of its cortical input from the prelimbic (PL) region of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (Peyron et al., 1998 and Vertes, 2004). Importantly, electrical stimulation in this region leads to the inhibition of DRN 5-HT neuronal firing (Hajos et al., 1998). This inhibition occurs because glutamatergic pyramidal output neurons from the PL to the DRN synapse preferentially within the DRN on GABAergic interneurons that in turn inhibit 5-HT cells (Jankowski and Sesack, 2004).