In this Perspectives article, we explain why Asia should be established as a hub for large multicentre trials, discuss the challenges involved, and highlight the importance of a strong collaborative infrastructure for multiple investigational sites in this culturally diverse continent.”
“Objective: In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’
injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident.
of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs.
Results: Surgeons in the mid-18th selleck screening library century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose.
Conclusion: Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of GSK2126458 Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable because of their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean.”
“Cervical Adavosertib mw cancer remains a public health problem in developed
countries. Early detection of both premalignant lesions and cervical cancer through an appropriate screening programme may decrease its incidence and mortality. High rates of participation are essential to ensure the desired impact on the population. The aims of this study were to assess the use of Pap smears in Spain in 2009 to identify factors associated with screening adherence (predictors) and assess the trend from 2003 to 2009. We included women surveyed in the European Health Interview Survey for Spain. Cervical cancer screening included self-reported Pap smears over the last 3 years. The target age range was 25-64 years. The following independent variables were analysed: sociodemographic variables, chronic conditions, and lifestyle. Predictors of Pap smear adherence were explored using multivariate logistic regression. The screening coverage in the target population was 66.1% (95% confidence interval: 64.8-67.4). Undergoing Pap smears was associated positively with the following: being married, higher levels of education and income, having visited a general practitioner in previous weeks, and suffering from musculoskeletal disease. Belonging to an older age group (55-64 years) and obesity were associated with nonadherence to Pap smears.