“The authors regret that an incorrect reference was featured in their article. The reference ‘Phimolsiripol,
Y., Siripatrawan, U., & Cleland, D. (2011). Weight loss of frozen bread dough under isothermal and fluctuating temperature storage conditions. Journal of Food Engineering, 106, 134–143.’ was included erroneously and should instead have cited the below reference: Phimolsiripol Y., Siripatrawan, U., & Henry. C.J.K. (2011). Pasting behaviour, textural properties and freeze–thaw stability of wheat flour–crude malva nut (Scaphium scaphigerum) gum system. Journal of Food Engineering, 105, 557–562. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. TAM Receptor inhibitor “
“In the literature, numerous investigations
aimed at identifying volatile compounds in different types of beer can be found and many hundreds of constituents have been reported (Fritsch & Schieberle, 2005). Beer is a very complex mixture and its constituents, including the volatile ones, vary widely in nature and in concentration levels and are derived from raw materials including water, yeast, malt, and hops. Aroma substances are very important in beer because they greatly contribute to quality of the final product (Liu, Zeng, & Xiong, 2005). Considering the nature and concentration of these chemical species, gas chromatography (GC) is the conventional analytical technique for aroma components. However, a proper isolation and concentration technique should be applied before the chromatographic analysis itself since many beer components, such as sugar, can cause serious damage to the chromatographic system. Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor A very suitable extraction–concentration method for GC analysis of beer is headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) (Pawliszyn, 1997). Due to the positive characteristics, some applications (Jellen et al., 1998 and Pinho et al., 2006) can be found in the literature focusing on volatile beer fraction composition analyses applying this sampling technique, as well
as for the analysis of beer off-flavours, such as sulphur compounds (Hill and Smith, 2000 and Scarlata and Ebeler, 1999), and carbonyl compounds (Vesely, Lusk, Basarova, Seabrooks, & Ryder, 2003). Among the many compounds that can be extracted from the volatile beer fraction, specific Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase ones can be pointed out as responsible or specifically related to quality parameters in beer. These parameters can be defined by sensorial analysis, such as quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) (Stone, Sidel, Oliver, Woolsey, & Singleton, 1974). However, these types of studies are very time-consuming and susceptible to large sources of variation. Assessing information about beer compounds by means of instrumental measurements would be very beneficial because the great possibility of getting repeatability and reproducibility, besides the fact that instruments do not suffer from fatigue or adaptation.