Regional estimates of binding potential (BPND) were obtained by calculating total volumes of distribution (V-T) for presynaptic 4 dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and postsynaptic cortical regions. Relative to placebo, citalopram infusion significantly increased [C-11]CUMI-101 BPND at postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in several cortical regions, but there was no change in binding at 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the DRN. Across the postsynaptic brain regions, citalopram treatment induced
a mean 7% in [C-11]CUMI-101 BPND (placebo 1.3 (0.2); citalopram 1.4 (0.2); paired t-test P = 0.003). The observed increase in postsynaptic [C-11]CUMI-101 availability identified following acute citalopram administration could be attributable see more to a decrease in endogenous 5-HT availability in cortical terminal regions, consistent with preclinical animal studies, in which acute administration of SSRIs decreases DRN cell firing through activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors to reduce 5-HT levels in postsynaptic regions. We conclude that [C-11]CUMI-101 may be sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT release in humans.”
“Polynucleotide Liproxstatin-1 price DNA and RNA editing enzymes alter nucleic acid sequences and can thereby modify encoded
informational content. Two major families of polynucleotide editing enzymes, the AI D/APO BEC cytidine deaminases (which catalyze the deamination of cytidine to uridine) and the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs, which catalyze the deamination of adenosine to inosine), function in a variety of host defense mechanisms. These enzymes act in innate and adaptive immune pathways, with both host and pathogen targets. DNA editing by the cytidine deaminase AI D mediates immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, providing the antibody response with the flexibility and diversity to defend against an almost limitless array of varied and rapidly adapting pathogenic challenges. Other cytidine deaminases (APO BEC 3) restrict retroviral infection by editing viral retrogenomes. Adenosine deaminases (ADARs) shape innate immune responses by modifying host transcripts that encode
immune effectors and their regulators. Here we review current knowledge of polynucleotide DNA and HKI-272 RNA editors with a focus on these and other functions they serve in the immune system.”
“Objective: We investigated the image quality of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).\n\nMethods: Inflated and fixed lungs were scanned with a garnet detector CT in high-resolution mode (HR mode) or non-high-resolution (HR) mode, and MPR images were then reconstructed. Observers compared 15 MPR images of ASIR (40%) and ASIR (80%) with those of ASIR (0%), and assessed image quality using a visual five-point scale (1, definitely inferior; 5, definitely superior), with particular emphasis on normal pulmonary structures, artefacts, noise and overall image quality.
Of the remaining 916 patients, a single abnormal selleck compound gland was identified on MIBI in 682 (74%), US in 731 (80%), and concordance of both in 588 (64%). Unsuspected multiglandular disease (MGD) was identified at BE in 22%, 22%, and 20% of patients, respectively. Adding intraoperative parathyroid hormone sampling
(IOPTH) further reduced the rate of unsuspected MGD to 16%, 17%, and 16%. Overall, IOPTH correctly predicted MGD in only 22%. Neither concomitant nonsurgical thyroid disease nor more stringent selection criteria (preop Ca > 11 mg/dL and PTH > 120 pg/dL) altered success rates. In patients with MGD, a subsequent gland identified was larger than the index gland in 23%. Ninety-eight percent of BE patients were cured of F HPT.\n\nConclusions: This is the largest study to evaluate the prevalence of additional
parathyroid pathology in patients who are candidates for LE. Limitations in localizing studies and IOPTH fail to identify MGD in at least 16% of patients, risking future recurrence.”
“Four Selleck Ruboxistaurin specific forces (H-bonds, van der Waals forces, hydrophobic and charge interactions) shape the structure of proteins, and many biologists assume they will determine the shape of all structures in the cell. However, as the mass and contour length of a human chromosome are similar to 7 orders of magnitude larger than those of a typical protein, additional forces can become significant.
We review evidence that additional non-specific (entropic) forces are major determinants of chromosomal shape and position. They are sufficient to drive the segregation (de-mixing) of newly replicated DNA to the poles of bacterial cells, while an entropic centrifuge can both form human 432 chromosomes into territories and position them appropriately in nuclei; more locally, a depletion attraction can loop bacterial and human genomes.”
“Human infection associated with a novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus has recently been identified in China(1). A total of 132 confirmed cases and 39 deaths have been reported(2). Most patients presented with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome(3,4). Although the first epidemic has Copanlisib nmr subsided, the presence of a natural reservoir and the disease severity highlight the need to evaluate its risk on human public health and to understand the possible pathogenesis mechanism. Here we show that the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a potentially high risk to humans. We discover that the H7N9 virus can bind to both avian-type (alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid) and human-type (alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid) receptors. It can invade epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumonocytes in alveoli, and replicated efficiently in ex vivo lung and trachea explant culture and several mammalian cell lines.
“Background: Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and those with treatment-sensitive depression (TSD) responded to antidepressants differently. Previous
studies have commonly shown that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions. In the present study, we used a coherence-based ReHo (Cohe-ReHo) approach to test the hypothesis that patients with TRD or TSD had abnormal neural activity in different brain regions.\n\nMethods: Twenty-three patients with TRD, 22 with TSD, and 19 healthy Copanlisib subjects (HS) matched with gender, age, and education level participated in the study.\n\nResults: ANOVA analysis revealed widespread differences in Cohe-ReHo values among the three groups in different brain regions which included bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum, left inferior
temporal gyrus, left occipital cortex, and both sides of 4 fusiform gyrus. Compared to HS, lower Cohe-ReHo values were observed in TRD group in bilateral superior frontal gyrus and left cerebellum; in contrast, in TSD group, lower Cohe-ReHo values were mainly found in bilateral superior frontal gyrus. Compared to TSD group, TRD group had lower Cohe-ReHo in bilateral cerebellum and higher Cohe-ReHo in left fusiform Ferroptosis inhibitor gyrus. There was a negative correlation between Cohe-ReHo values of the left fusiform gyrus and illness duration in the pooled patients (r = 0.480, p = 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of cerebellar Cohe-ReHo values differentiating TRD from TSD were 83% and 86%, respectively.\n\nConclusions: Compared to healthy controls, both TRD and TSD patients shared the majority of brain regions with abnormal neural activity. However, the lower Cohe-ReHo values in the cerebellum
might be as a marker to differentiate TRD from TSD with high sensitivity and specificity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To Epigenetic inhibitor purchase estimate the prevalence and identify the factors associated with previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or incontinence surgery.\n\nStudy design: In a cross-sectional study, all women who were aged 45-85 years and registered in eight general practices were invited to participate. They completed standardised questionnaires (the urinary distress inventory (UDI) and the defaecatory distress inventory (DDI)) and answered questions on previous pelvic floor surgery.\n\nResults: Out of 2979 women eligible for this study, 1380 women were included. Previous surgery had been performed in 119 women. The prevalence of surgery increased with age, with a prevalence of 20.3% in the age group 76-85 years. Pelvic floor symptoms were more prevalent in women who had undergone previous surgery, with higher UDI and DDI scores. Factors associated with previous surgery were age, higher BMI, POP symptoms during pregnancy and previous hernia surgery.\n\nConclusion: In The Netherlands, approximately one in five women will undergo surgery for POP and/or incontinence during her lifetime.
MIATool additionally supports processing flexibility, extensible image processing capabilities, and data storage management.”
“Crop wild relatives are invaluable sources of novel genes for crop improvement and adaptation to changing environments. We assessed phylogenetic relationships among 29 Linum accessions representing 16 species, including cultivated selleckchem flax and its progenitor pale flax, based on four non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA sequences. We obtained a cpDNA network showing that these 16 Linum species are appropriately connected based
on previously defined taxonomic sections; these connections reflect the same evolutionary pathways as determined from earlier morphological and cytological data. These relationships also support an earlier hypothesis that cultivated flax is probably descended from a single domestication of pale flax plants, apparently for oil usage. The detailed species network not only is significant for understanding evolutionary relationships of Linum species, but also useful for classifying exotic gene pools of cultivated flax as a part selleck products of the ongoing exploration of new genetic diversity for
“This study investigated the efficacy of (131)iodine-labeled lipiodol (I-131-lipiodol) as a palliative therapy, evaluated overall survival (OS) across Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) : stages, and determined the main prognostic factors influencing OS in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients, methods: We retrospectively analyzed 57 (44 men; mean age, 65.7 years; mean activity per session, 1.6 GBq; mean cumulative activity in patients with >1 sessions,
3.9 GBq) HCC patients who underwent I-131-lipiodol therapy. A majority of patients exhibited Child-Pugh class B (53.6%) disease and a good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1; 72%). Multinodular disease was observed in 87.7% patients, bilobar disease in 73%, and portal vein occlusion (PVO) in 54%. Furthermore, 21.1% patients BX-795 solubility dmso were staged as BCLC B and 59.6 % as BCLC C. All patients were followed until death. Results: The median OS was 6.4 months, which varied significantly with disease stage (median OS for BCLC A, B, C, and D was 29.4, 12.0, 4.6, and 2.7 months, respectively; p = 0.009); Child-Pugh score and class; presence of ascites, PVO, or extrahepatic disease; largest lesion size; favourable treatment response; international normalized ratio, baseline albumin and alpha-fetoprotein levels. Patients with a Child-Pugh A liver disease had a longer OS.
After an additional hour the rats
were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the 3 gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results Selleckchem ARS-1620 suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic effect and also, adiponectin promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative decrease of ulcer areas, reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer.”
“Because of progress in imaging, the incidence of renal tumours, especially GSI-IX price small lesions, has been rising over the last years. Therefore, imaging must be done to decide how to proceed further. But which is the most effective modality: computed tomography
(CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? From the technical point of view, the two alternatives appear to be nearly equal. Multidetector CT remains the reference standard for staging and lesion characterisation, whereas MRI is the method of choice for determining caval extension of a tumour thrombus and infiltration of the renal vein. If an accurate diagnosis cannot be specified, the remaining modality should be used complementarily.”
“Background.\n\nPercutaneous exposure incidents represent an important occupational health issue.\n\nCase report.\n\nA paediatric dentist was cut by a small round bur in a handpiece. A few hours later the elbow became swollen and painful. Since the bur had been contaminated with saliva and oral flora, the injury was treated as a human bite DAPT clinical trial equivalent. An X-ray revealed the broken piece of the bur in the soft tissue of the dentist’s elbow.\n\nConclusion.\n\nCare
should be taken to prevent and treat injuries by sharp items, during and also following dental treatment.”
“Infectious diseases result from the interactions of host, pathogens, and, in the case of vector-borne diseases, also vectors. The interactions involve physiological and ecological mechanisms and they have evolved under a given set of environmental conditions. Environmental change, therefore, will alter host-pathogen-vector interactions and, consequently, the distribution, intensity, and dynamics of infectious diseases. Here, we review how climate change may impact infectious diseases of aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Climate change can have direct impacts on distribution, life cycle, and physiological status of hosts, pathogens and vectors.
The relationship between prion propagation, generation RG7420 of neurotoxic species and clinical onset has remained obscure. Prion incubation periods in experimental animals are known to vary inversely with expression level of cellular prion
protein. Here we demonstrate that prion propagation in brain proceeds via two distinct phases: a clinically silent exponential phase not rate-limited by prion protein concentration which rapidly reaches a maximal prion titre, followed by a distinct switch to a plateau phase. The latter determines time to clinical onset in a manner inversely proportional to prion protein concentration. These findings demonstrate an uncoupling of infectivity and toxicity. We suggest that prions themselves are not neurotoxic but catalyse the formation of such species from PrPC. Production of neurotoxic species is triggered when prion propagation saturates, leading to a switch from autocatalytic production of infectivity (phase 1) to a toxic
(phase 2) pathway.”
“To determine the apicultural value of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae) check details and evaluate the Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity on its pod and seed yields, the bee foraging and pollinating activities were studied in Ngaoundere. The experiment was carried out within the University of Ngaoundere Campus on 210 flowers differentiated in two lots, based on the protection/or not of plant inflorescences against insect visits. The bee’s seasonal rhythm of activity, its foraging behaviour on flowers, the fructification rate, the number and dry weight of seeds/pod, the percentage of normal seeds/pod, and the pod length were evaluated. Results show that A. m. adansonii foraged on plants throughout the whole blooming period. Worker bees intensively and preferably harvested nectar. The greatest mean number of workers foraging simultaneously was 500 per 1000 flowers. The mean foraging speed was 8.67 flowers/min. These findings
allow the classification of V. unguiculata as a highly nectariferous bee plant. The number and dry weight of seed/pod, the pod length and the percentage of normal seeds/pod from unprotected selleck compound flowers were significantly higher than those of flowers protected from insects. The fructification rates were 62 and 48%, while the percentages of healthly seeds were 97.61 and 76.17%, respectively in unprotected and protected inflorescences. The installation of A. m. adansonii colonies close to V. unguiculata field could be recommended to improve its pods and seeds production in the region.”
“The growing number of bacterial strains resistant to conventional antibiotics has become a serious medical problem in recent years. 432 marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and many species can be useful for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This study reports the in vitro screening of marine sponges in the search for novel substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Four SPs were derived from hemolysin of Escherichia coli, RTX protein of V. cholerae, hemolysin of V. anguillarum, zinc-metalloprotease of V. anguillarum, respectively, and their abilities to support secretion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in an attenuated
V. anguillarum strain MVAV6203 were assayed. Immunodetection of GFP showed that the capability of the tested signal leaders to direct secretion of GFP varied greatly. Although all the four signal peptide-fused GFPs could be expressed correctly and trapped intracellularly in recombinant strains, only the EmpA signal 4 peptide could confer efficient MAPK inhibitor secretion to GFP. For the investigation of its potential application in live bacteria carrier vaccines, a heterologous protein EseB of Edwardsiella tarda was fused to the SP (empA) antigen-delivery system and introduced into the strain MVAV6203. Further analysis of EseB demonstrated that the constructed SP (empA) antigen-delivery Citarinostat concentration system could be used to secrete foreign protein
in attenuated V. anguillarum and be available for carrier vaccines development.”
“(Z)-2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-5-[4-(mesyl)benzylidene]-4H-imidazol-4-one mesilate (ZLJ-601) is an imidazolone COX/5-LOX inhibitor, which has excellent anti-inflammatory activity with an improved gastrointestinal safety profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of ZLJ-601 in Sprague-Dawley rats. After intravenous or intragastric administration to rats, the concentration of ZLJ-601 in plasma, bile, urine, feces and various types of tissues was detected by LC-MS. We also conducted the identification of metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry. After the intravenous administration, the t(1/2) ranged Akt phosphorylation from 38.71 to 42.62 min and the AUC increased in a
dose-proportional manner. After oral dosing, the plasma level of ZLJ-601 peaked at 28.33 min, having a C-max value of 0.26 mg/l, and the bioavailability was only 4.92%. The highest tissue concentration of ZLJ-601 was observed in lung and kidney, but it was not found in brain. The majority of unchanged ZLJ-601 was excreted in urine (similar to 35.87%) within 36 h. Two main metabolites are the hydroxylation product and the glucuronide conjugate of the hydroxylation product. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Spatial diversity gradients are a pervasive feature of life on Earth. We examined a global ocean circulation, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem model that indicated a decrease in phytoplankton diversity with increasing latitude, consistent with observations of many marine and terrestrial taxa. In the modeled subpolar oceans, seasonal variability of the environment led to competitive exclusion of phytoplankton with slower growth rates and lower diversity.
Changes of 27% in cohesion and 8% in the friction angle were found due to the attack of the interface and consequences of the changes are examined. Crown Copyright (c) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers the possibility of non-invasive treatment of brain disorders in humans. Studies on animals can allow rapid progress of the research including exploring a variety of different treatment conditions. Numerical calculations using animal
models are needed to help design suitable TMS coils for use in animal experiments, in particular, to estimate the electric field induced in animal brains. In this paper, we have implemented a high-resolution anatomical MRI-derived mouse www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-34051.html model consisting of 50 tissue types to accurately calculate induced electric field in the mouse brain. Magnetic field measurements have been performed on the surface of the coil and compared with the calculations in order to validate the calculated magnetic and induced electric
fields in the brain. Results show how the induced electric field is distributed in a mouse brain and allow investigation of how this could be improved for TMS studies using mice. The findings have important implications in further preclinical development of TMS for treatment of human diseases. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Treatment of osteoporotic fractures with conventional surgical methods is associated with a high rate of complications. Intense search for new treatment options includes LY2835219 molecular weight SNX-5422 price development of specific biomaterials aimed to be part of the surgical armamentarium. Strontium doped calcium phosphate spheres (SrCPS) is a new material that might be of interest due to the influence on osteoclast and osteoblast activity. In the present study, we successfully constructed hollow spherical SrCPS particles with a diameter of 3 approximate to 700 nm and shell thickness
of approximate to 150 nm. The Sr content was about 20 wt %. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were investigated in vitro with concentrations from 0 to 1000 g/mL of SrCPS in medium extract in a day chase study. The in vivo biocompatibility was tested in a delayed bone-healing model in a rat vertebral defect by histology, CT, and nanoSPECT. The SrCPS showed no toxicity in vitro with comparable cell number in all concentrations. Increased metabolism was seen in the cell viability study in cells exposed to 400 and 600 g/mL. SPECT showed good biocompatibility with no local adverse effects and an increased osteoblast activity as compared to adjacent vertebra. SrCPS implantation induced bone formation and resulted in complete resorption and defect consolidation. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
The concentrations of several nutritionally
desirable compounds (beta-lactoglobulin, LXH254 omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, conjugated linoleic acid c9t11, and/or carotenoids) decreased with increasing feeding intensity (organic outdoor >= conventional outdoor >= conventional indoors). Milking system intensification (use of robotic milking parlors) had a more limited effect on milk composition, but increased mastitis incidence. Multivariate analyses indicated that differences in milk quality were mainly linked to contrasting feeding regimens and that milking system and breed choice also contributed to differences in milk composition between production systems.”
“Background: Bronchial asthma is the most frequent chronic childhood disease and can have a marked impact on educational development,
activities and quality of life. The AIRMAG survey 123 provides an opportunity to assess asthma and its impact in children in North Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence, burden and management of asthma in children in the Maghreb.\n\nMethods: A general population sample was generated using a stratified sampling method based on randomly-generated lists of telephone numbers. The target sample consisted of 10 000 households in each country, which were contacted by telephone. A structured interview was proposed. JNK-IN-8 cost Two screening questions were asked to identify subjects with asthma. Children who met these criteria were then questioned in more detail. about their asthma.\n\nResults: Of 30350 households contacted, 1090 subjects with asthma were identified,
of whom 248 were aged under sixteen and interviewed by proxy. The prevalence of paediatric asthma ranged from Staurosporine 3.5% in Tunisia to 4.4% in Morocco. 22.8% of children were rated as severe persistent and 30.9% as intermittent. Asthma control was adequate in 7.6% of children and unacceptable in 46.2%. Control was best in Tunisia and worst in Morocco. 12.2% had been hospitalised for their asthma in the previous year and 32.9% had needed to attend an emergency department. Short-acting beta-agonists were used by 52.8% of children and prophylactic inhaled corticosteroids (atone or in association with long-acting beta-agonists) by 27.0%.\n\nConclusions: Asthma has a major impact on the lives of children with asthma in the Maghreb. This could be improved by offering more appropriate care as recommended in the GINA guidelines. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Algorithm-based exposure assessments based on patterns in questionnaire responses and professional judgment can readily apply transparent exposure decision rules to thousands of jobs quickly. However, we need to better understand how algorithms compare to a one-by-one job review by an exposure assessor.
olivacea x C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta x E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta x E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of 4 multispecies hybridization among C. caretta x E. imbricata x Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon,
spanning at least two generations or 40 years.”
“The efficacy and safety of Optivate (R) was assessed in 23 surgical operations, orthopaedic (12) including 5 revision arthroplasties, ophthalmic (1), ENT (1), dental (6), liver biopsy (2), and removal selleck kinase inhibitor of portacath (1) on 15 teenagers and adults with severe haemophilia A. The preoperative dose was calculated to raise the FVIII concentration to 100 IU dL-1. Subsequent doses were targeted to maintain at least 50 IU dL-1. There were 11 major and 12 minor operations categorized as receiving intensive replacement therapy for >= 5 days or < 5 days respectively.
The median preoperative dose was 50.4 see more (range 18.2-88.2) IU kg-1. The median incremental recovery based on this first dose in 10 procedures (5 patients) was 2.9 (range 2.4-3.4 IU dL-1) per IU kg-1. The daily doses decreased during the first 4 days of the study. The patients in this study received 173 infusions in total. Outcome was ‘good’ or ‘excellent’ for 19 (83%) of 23 operations, ‘uncertain’ in three procedures because an antifibrinolytic agent was used as well and for one procedure outcome was not assessed. Tolerance was good. There were no excessive bleeds, no inhibitors and no virus transmissions.”
“The canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) is a receptor-activated non-selective Ca2+ channel regulated by a variety of modulators such as diacylglycerol, Ca2+/calmodulin or phosphorylation. The present
study is aimed to investigate whether different situations, such as acidic pH, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) PF-00299804 cell line or hypoxic-like conditions modulate TRPC6 channel function. Here we show normal aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization stimulated by thrombin in TRPC6 KO platelets; however, OAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol)-evoked Ca2+ entry was attenuated in the absence of TRPC6. Exposure of mouse platelets to acidic pH resulted in abolishment of thrombin-evoked aggregation and attenuated platelet aggregation induced by thapsigargin (TG) or GAG. Both GAG-induced Ca2+ entry and platelet aggregation were greatly attenuated in cells expressing TRPC6 channels. Exposure of platelets to H2O2 or deferoxamine did not clearly alter thrombin, TG or GAG-induced platelet aggregation. Our results indicate that TRPC6 is sensitive to acidic pH but not to exposure to ROS or hypoxic-like conditions, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of the altered platelet responsiveness to GAG-generating agonists in disorders associated to acidic pH. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.