1 min +/- 29 3, P = 0 258) Postoperative bleeding (mean 86 ml +/

1 min +/- 29.3, P = 0.258). Postoperative bleeding (mean 86 ml +/- 93), reoperation due to bleeding (clips 4, ligature 2), wound infections (clips 4, ligature 4), postoperative hospital stay (mean 3.0 +/- 1.9), and safety data also did not vary significantly.

The rates of temporary and permanent RLN paralysis were 6.9 % (34/491) Tozasertib and 2.9 % (14/491), respectively. Not using a surgical drain (123 patients) was not associated with a higher rate of complications.

Vascular clips did not reduce the resection time. However, a 2.9 % rate of permanent RLN paralysis is of concern. Drains in elective surgery may be of no benefit.”
“This study attempts to evaluate the Phytotoxkit (TM) as a tool for measuring the toxicity of municipal sewage sludges using 10 common plants: mustard, turnip, cress, red clover, cucumber, tomato, radish, sorrel, and spinach. The results were used to

determine a germination index (GI) and a median effective concentration (EC) value for each plant. The trace metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminant content and the physical-chemical properties were examined. Most sewage sludges were characterized by an unfavorable electrical conductivity value of about 5.2 mS/cm(-1). The most abundant trace metals were zinc (Zn) at 871-1680 mg kg(-1), manganese (Mn) at 245-661 mg kg(-1), and copper (Cu) at 88.2-161.0 mg kg(-1). The lowest values were determined for cobalt (Co) at 2.9-3.8 mg kg(-1) and cadmium (Cd) at 0.7-3.7 mg kg(-1). The PAH sum 5-Fluoracil price was based on 10 individual compounds (USE EPA), and the PAH content ranged from 4.76 to 27.95 mg kg(-1), most of the sewage sludges showing a predomination by carcinogenic PAHs. The GI values, based on seed germination

and root growth inhibition bioassays, showed increasing plant sensitivity to the tested sewage sludges in the following order: cress > turnip LBH589 > mustard > sorrel > tomato > sorgo > red clover > radish > cucumber > spinach. The EC50 sewage sludge values lay in the range 31-404 g/kg of soil, and significant relationships were found for most of the plants between EC50 and the magnesium content (Mg(2+): alpha = 0.888-0.924, P = 0.05), calcium content (Ca(2+): alpha = 0.813-0.911, P <= 0.05), and pH (alpha = -0.913-0.948, P = 0.05). In the case of sewage sludge pollutants, significant relationships were found for trace metals such as: strontium (Sr: alpha = 0.851-0.948, P <= 0.05), chromium (Cr: alpha = 0.858, P <= 0.05), and nickel (Ni: alpha = 0.955, P = 0.05), as well as pyrene (PAHs). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 38-47, 2010.”
“The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the rate of complications in relation to the extent of surgery and some of its consequences.

Between 1972 and 2010, a total of 5,277 consecutive thyroid gland surgeries with 7,383 nerves at risk were performed at our teaching institution. Data of all patients undergoing thyroidectomy were collected prospectively.

The possibility that the same pathological process affecting skin

The possibility that the same pathological process affecting skin and skeletal muscles also affected peripheral nerves in our patient should be considered.”
“We synthesized the new copolymer, which was composed of dialkoxy naphthalene, N-alkylcarbazole, and fluorine, by Suzuki coupling reaction. The resulting copolymer was soluble in common organic solvents and showed the weight-average molecular weight (MW) of 288,000 with a polydispersity index of 2.56. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis study revealed that the HOMO

energy level and optical band gap of copolymer was 5.66 and 3.03 eV, respectively. The ITO/PEDOT/polymer/LiF/Al device emits bright deep blue light with a maximum peak around 422 nm. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 43-48, 2011″
“Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (IBM2) was mainly reported in Middle Eastern Jewish patients. Distal ABT-737 inhibitor myopathy with rimmed vacuoles has been described as a worldwide distributed distal myopathy. Both diseases are caused by mutations of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) gene. Herein we report two patients: an Egyptian Muslim patient with the “”common”" Middle Eastern mutation (M712T), rarely described in selleck kinase inhibitor non-Jewish patients; and an Italian patient carrying a novel GNE mutation (L179F) in the epimerase domain.

Our patients share common clinical and histopathological features, with some interesting aspects. The first patient presented a clinical deterioration during her first pregnancy confirming that an increased requirement of sialic acid during pregnancy may trigger a clinical worsening. The second

patient showed a slowly progressive deterioration, different from other patients carrying mutations in the epimerase domain, who had a severe and click here rapid progression.”
“Study Design. A cross-sectional population-based study of risk indicators for upper or mid back pain history.

Objective. To examine risk indicators for upper or mid back pain.

Summary of Background Data. Imaging findings have not been included in previous studies of other commonly suspected risk indicators for upper or mid back pain reporting.

Methods. Magnetic resonance images (T6-T12) and data on pain history and exposure to possible risk factors, as indicated through a standardized interview, were available for 519 Finnish men. Three definitions of pain included the presence of pain, which was any pain noted during the prior year, pain frequency during the prior year and, of particular interest, “”severe pain”" of an intensity of 80 or more on a 0 to 100 scale or resulting in difficulties performing daily activities. Logistic regression (odds ratios [OR]) was used to examine the association between risk indicators and pain reports, adjusting for age.


Factors such as number of

Factors such as number of selleck chemicals llc parity and genotype do seem to influence colostrum yield and composition. The endocrine status of the sow also affects the process of colostrogenesis and changes in the sow endocrine status can have an impact on quantity and quality of colostrum produced. Indeed, induction of parturition seems to play a role. Nutrition is undoubtedly a major factor that could be used as a tool to alter colostrum composition, with fat content being the most affected. Feed ingredients, such as yeast

extracts and fermented liquid feed, were recently shown to alter colostrum composition, yet more research is needed to substantiate these effects. Very few data are available on the influence of environment on colostrum production; results suggest that heat stress has negative effects Compound C mw on colostrum composition. Considering the importance of colostrum for the survival, growth, and immune resistance of piglets, it is obvious that research on the development of new management systems is necessary to improve yield and composition of colostrum.”
“PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an angle-supported

phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) for correction of moderate to high myopia.

SETTING: Ophthalmology centers in the United States, Canada, and the European Union.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

METHODS: This study comprised patients with moderate to high myopia (range -6.00 to -16.50 diopters [D]) who had implantation of the AcrySof Cachet pIOL. Outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), predictability, stability of the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD).

RESULTS: Pooled interim data from 360 patients assessed for up to 3 years postoperatively are presented. Of the 104 patients who reached the 3-year visit, the UDVA was 20/40 or better in 101 (97.1%) and 20/20 or better in 48(46.2%). The CDVA was 20/32 or better in 103 (99.0%) of www.selleckchem.com/products/azd2014.html the 104 patients and 20/20 or better in 84 patients (80.8%). The mean MRSE was -0.24 D +/-

0.55 (SD) (range -2.00 to 1.63 D). The residual refractive error was within +/- 0.50 D of target in 82 patients (78.8%) and within +/- 1.00 D in 95 patients (91.3%). The annualized percentage loss in central ECD and peripheral ECU from 6 months to 3 years was 0.41% and 1.11%, respectively. No pupil ovalization, pupillary block, or retinal detachment was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Three-year findings from pooled global studies showed that the angle-supported pIOL provided favorable refractive correction and predictability and acceptable safety in patients with moderate to high myopia.”
“We have studied hydrogen impurities and related structural properties in state-of-the-art wurtzite InN films with polar, nonpolar, and semipolar surface orientations.

3% were TB-positive using PCR, while respectively 47 6% and 45 2%

3% were TB-positive using PCR, while respectively 47.6% and 45.2% were sputum- and culture-positive. Among the HIV-positive individuals, 55.6% were PCR-positive, whereas only 38.9% were sputum-positive and 50% were culture-positive.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the identification of mycobacteria by PCR using GuHClM is very sensitive and therefore may have wide utility in the diagnosis of TB.”
“Objective: Recent progresses in fetal surgery have raised concern on fetal pain, its long-term consequences

and the risks of sudden fetal movements induced by pain. In several studies, surgeons have directly administered opioids to the fetus, while others have considered sufficient the maternally administered analgesics. We Roscovitine manufacturer performed a review of the literature to assess the state of the art. Methods: We performed a PubMed search to retrieve the papers that in the last 10 years reported studies of human fetal surgery and that described whether any fetal analgesia was administered. Results: We retrieved 34 papers. In three papers, the procedure did not hurt the fetus, being performed on fetal annexes, in two papers, it was performed in the first half of pregnancy, PHA-739358 in vivo when pain perception is unlikely. In 10 of the 29 remaining papers, fetal surgery was performed using direct fetal analgesia, while in 19, analgesia was administered only

to the mother. In most cases, fetal direct analgesia was obtained using i.m. opioids, and muscle relaxant. Rare drawbacks on either fetuses or mothers due to fetal analgesia were reported. Conclusion: Fetal direct analgesia is performed only in a minority of cases and no study gives details about fetal reactions to pain. More research is needed to assess or exclude its possible long-term drawbacks, as well as the actual consequences of pain during surgery.”
“SETTING: The real-time polymerase chain

reaction (RTPCR) has increasingly been used for the detection of various micro-organisms, including mycobacteria.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of RT-PCR in confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) when acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear results in sputum samples were not available (i.e., no sputum or negative smear results).

DESIGN: We analysed the data of consecutive AC220 patients whose bronchial aspirate (BA) was tested for RT-PCR for the diagnosis of TB from January 2006 to April 2008. Computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and tissue biopsies were performed in all patients for confirmatory diagnosis, and BA was collected for microbiological analyses and RT-PCR. Final diagnoses were based on microbiological or clinicopathological criteria.

RESULTS: Final diagnoses were made in 136 patients, and TB was confirmed in 77 (including 65 culture-positive patients). RT-PCR was positive in 51.9% (40/77) of the confirmed TB patients. More TB patients (20.8%) were detected using RT-PCR than using BA-AFB stain (40 vs. 20, P < 0.001). Of the 77 TB patients, 44 (57.

The result revealed that the Median lethal dose of the plant is g

The result revealed that the Median lethal dose of the plant is greater

than 3000 mg/kg body weight. The treatment of the rats with varying doses of the plant extract for 28 days in this studies resulted in increases in body weight although not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The repeated administration of Semaxanib cell line graded doses of the extract also produces significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the blood sugar levels of the treatment groups compared to their respective day zero values thus justifying its folkloric use as a potential hypoglycaemic agent.”
“P>Nitrate, the major nitrogen source for plants, can be accumulated in the vacuole. Its transport across the vacuolar membrane is mediated by AtCLCa, an antiporter of the chloride channel (CLC) protein family. In contrast

to other CLC family members, AtCLCa transports nitrate coupled to protons. Recently, the different behaviour towards nitrate of CLC proteins has been linked to the presence of a serine or proline in the selectivity filter motif GXGIP. By monitoring AtCLCa activity in its native environment, we show that if proline 160 in AtCLCa is changed to a serine (AtCLCaP160S), the transporter loses its nitrate selectivity, but the anion proton exchange mechanism is unaffected. We also performed in vivo analyses in yeast and Arabidopsis. In contrast to native AtCLCa, expression of Evofosfamide cost AtCLCaP160S does not complement either the Delta ScCLC yeast mutant grown on nitrate BV-6 or the nitrate under-accumulation phenotype of clca knockout plants. Our results confirm the significance of this amino acid in the conserved selectivity filter of CLC proteins and highlight the importance of the proline in AtCLCa for nitrate metabolism in Arabidopsis.”
“P>Use of piggyback technique (PB) and elimination of venovenous bypass (VVB) have been advocated in adult liver transplantation (LT). However, individual contribution of these two modifications on clinical outcomes has not been fully investigated. We performed a retrospective review of 426 LTs within a 3-year period, when three different surgical techniques were employed per the surgeons’ preference: retrohepatic caval resection with VVB (RCR + VVB)

in 104 patients, PB with VVB (PB + VVB) in 148, and PB without VVB (PB-Only) in 174. The primary outcomes were intraoperative blood transfusion and the patient and graft survivals. Demographic profiles were similar, except younger recipient age in RCR + VVB and fewer number of grafts with cold ischemic time over 16 h in PB-Only. PB-Only required lesser intraoperative red blood cells (P = 0.006), fresh frozen plasma (P = 0.005), and cell saver return (P = 0.007); had less incidence of acute renal failure (P = 0.001), better patient survival (P = 0.039), and graft survival (P = 0.003). The benefits of PB + VVB were only found in shortened total surgical time (P = 0.0001) and warm ischemic time (P = 0.0001), and less incidence of acute renal failure (P = 0.

Older pediatric patients had no treatment failures, and tended to

Older pediatric patients had no treatment failures, and tended to have fewer postoperative complications compared to younger patients. (C) 2011 Elsevier KPT-8602 mouse Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Chronically increased intestinal iron uptake in genetic hemochromatosis (HC) may cause organ failure. Whilst iron loading from blood transfusions

may cause dilated cardiomyopathy in conditions such as thalassemia, the in-vivo prevalence of myocardial siderosis in HC is unclear, and its relation to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is controversial. Most previous data on myocardial siderosis in HC has come from post-mortem studies.

Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed at first presentation of 41 HC patients (58.9 +/- 14.1 years) to measure myocardial iron and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF).

Results: In 31 patients (genetically confirmed HFE-HC), the HFE genotype was C282Y/C282Y (n = 30) and C282Y/H63D (n = 1). Patients with other genotypes (n = 10) were labeled genetically unconfirmed HC. Of the genetically confirmed HFE-HC patients, 6 (19%) had myocardial siderosis (T2* <20 ms). Of these,

5 (83%) had heart failure and reduced LVEF which was correlated to the severity of siderosis (R-2 0.57, p = 0.049). Two patients had follow-up scans and both had marked improvements in T2* and LVEF following venesection. Myocardial siderosis was present in 6/18 (33%) of patients with presenting ferritin >= 1000 mu g/L at diagnosis but in 0/13 (0%) patients with

ferritin <1000 mu g/L (p = 0.028). Overall AZ 628 however, the relation between myocardial siderosis and ferritin was weak (R-2 0.20, p = 0.011). In the 10 genetically unconfirmed HC patients, 1 patient had mild myocardial GSK872 siderosis but normal EF. Of all 31 patients, 4 had low LVEF from other identifiable causes without myocardial siderosis.

Conclusion: Myocardial siderosis was present in 33% of newly presenting genetically confirmed HFE-HC patients with ferritin >1000 mu g/L, and was the commonest cause of reduced LVEF. Heart failure due to myocardial siderosis was only found in these HFE-HC patients, and was reversible with venesection. Myocardial iron was normal in patients with other causes of LV dysfunction.”
“Objectives: To report the results of cochlear implantation via the middle fossa approach in 4 patients, discuss the complications, and present a detailed description of the programming specifications in these cases.

Study Design: Retrospective case review.

Setting: Tertiary-care referral center with a well-established cochlear implant program.

Patients: Four patients with bilateral canal wall down mastoid cavities who underwent the middle fossa approach for cochlear implantation.

Interventions: Cochlear implantation and subsequent rehabilitation.

SLC4A4 distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry

SLC4A4 distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Treatment with increasing E-2 doses resulted in a dose-dependent increase in SLC4A4 protein expression. High SLC4A4 protein and mRNA expression can be seen at estrus. SLC4A4 is distributed BAY 57-1293 solubility dmso mainly at the apical as well as basolateral membranes of the luminal and glandular epithelia following E-2 treatment and at Es. Meanwhile, SLC4A4 expression was reduced following P-4 treatment and was low at diestrus.

Conclusion: High SLC4A4 expression under estrogen dominance may contribute to the increase in uterine fluid Na+ and HCO3- content, while its low expression under P-4 dominance may result in vice

versa. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has recommended GS-4997 purchase artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and, in 2007, mandated testing for all suspected cases of malaria with a Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT(Paracheck (R)). Given the higher cost of ACT compared to earlier anti-malarials, the objectives of the present study were i)

to study the accuracy of Paracheck (R) compared to the thick blood smear (TBS) in two areas with different levels of malaria endemicity and ii) analyse the cost-effectiveness of the strategy of the parasitological confirmation of clinically suspected malaria cases management recommended by the NMCP.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the

villages of Dielmo and Ndiop (Senegal) nested in a cohort study of about 800 inhabitants. For all the individuals consulting between October 2008 and January 2009 with a clinical diagnosis of malaria, a questionnaire was filled and finger-prick blood samples were taken both for microscopic LGK-974 molecular weight examination and RDT. The estimated costs and cost-effectiveness analysis were made considering five scenarios, the recommendations of the NMCP being the reference scenario. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed assuming that all the RDT-positive patients and 50% of RDT-negative patients were treated with ACT.

Results: A total of 189 consultations for clinically suspected malaria occurred during the study period. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were respectively 100%, 98.3%, 80.0% and 100%. The estimated cost of the reference scenario was close to 700(sic) per 1000 episodes of illness, approximately twice as expensive as most of the other scenarios. Nevertheless, it appeared to us cost-effective while ensuring the diagnosis and the treatment of 100% of malaria attacks and an adequate management of 98.4% of episodes of illness.

These are widespread in the plant kingdom and play crucial roles

These are widespread in the plant kingdom and play crucial roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses, as well as in processes related to plant growth and development. Recently, it has been shown that jasmonates are also involved in reproductive processes. We present the most recent findings related to the biosynthesis, regulation and signaling mechanisms GDC-0973 MAPK inhibitor of jasmonates. Additionally, we discuss the identification of [(+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile] as the active biological hormonal form of jasmonate; this fills the greatest gap in our knowledge about the signaling mechanism that is responsible for the activation of downstream genes in the

jasmonate-signaling cascade. The identification of several Arabidopsis thaliana mutants was crucial to the elucidation of the signaling mechanisms involved in jasmonate-mediated responses. Finally, the involvement of jasmonates in the reproductive process of Nicotiana tabacum L. is briefly discussed, since some of the main enzymes

of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway were identified in a stigma/style expressed sequence tag database (TOBEST) of this Solanaceae species.”
“Objective-To describe reports of animals exposed to metaldehyde- and iron phosphate-containing molluscicides and characterize iron phosphate exposure incidents in dogs with clinical signs compatible with iron toxicosis.

Design-2-part retrospective case series.

Sample-1,500 reports of animals exposed to molluscicides containing metaldehyde (n = this website 1,285) or iron 17-AAG phosphate between 2001 and 2011 (n = 215; part 1) and a subset of 56 reports involving 61 dogs with suspected

iron toxicosis (part 2).

Procedures-In part 1, a National Pesticide Information Center database was searched to identify reported exposures to metaldehyde- and iron phosphate-containing molluscicides before, during, and after a regulatory transition affecting metaldehyde product labeling beginning in 2006. Source of the report, number of animals, clinical signs, and deaths were evaluated. In part 2, reports involving potential iron toxicosis in dogs were additionally reviewed for signalment, circumstances of exposure, and product identification.

Results-Reports of metaldehyde exposures decreased each year between 2006 (n = 193) and 2011 (21), whereas reports of iron phosphate exposures increased between 2006 (n = 4) and 2010 (73); changes were not evaluated statistically. Animals had no clinical signs at the time of the call in 130 of 215 (60%) and 675 of 1,285 (53%) reports of iron phosphate and metaldehyde exposure, respectively. In dogs, 35 deaths were associated with metaldehyde exposure and no deaths were associated with iron phosphate exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Veterinary professionals should be aware of the potential for iron toxicosis following exposure to iron phosphate-containing molluscicides.

Many of the isolates were indistinguishable by molecular typing <

Many of the isolates were indistinguishable by molecular typing.

Conclusions: The prevalence of MSSA colonization in children and care providers in a university medical center child care center is similar to that of the general population. Children colonized with MSSA tended to be older and to have received fewer courses of antibiotics than children who did not have MSSA. The relatedness of many of the isolates indicates that transmission of MSSA occurred at this child care center.”

stem cells (MSCs) are the nonhematopoietic SNX-5422 mw multipotent progenitor cells found in various adult tissues. They are characterized by their ease of isolation and their rapid growth in vitro while maintaining their differentiation potential, allowing for extensive expansion in culture that yields large quantities suitable for therapeutic use. This article reviews the immunomodulatory activities associated with MSCs. Numerous studies

have demonstrated that MSCs are potently immunosuppressive in vitro and in vivo. However, this article presents a new paradigm in MSC biology, in which PF-573228 mouse MSCs, at least in vitro, can undergo polarization into either a pro-inflammatory or an immunosuppressive phenotype.”
“Electromagnetic fields arising from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can cause various clinically relevant functional disturbances in patients with cardiac pacemakers. Consequently,

an implanted pacemaker is generally considered a contraindication for an MRI scan. With approximately 60 million MRI scans performed worldwide per year, MRI may be indicated for an estimated majority of pacemaker patients during the lifetime of their pacemakers. The availability of MR conditional pacemakers with CE labelling is of particular advantage since they allow the safe use of pacemakers see more in MRI. In this article the current state of knowledge on pacemakers and MR imaging is discussed. We present the results of a survey conducted among Swiss radiologists to assess current practice in patients with pacemakers.”
“Background: A booster meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine dose is recommended after the first year of life. The objective of this study was to assess its immunogenicity and factors that modify the immunoresponse.

Methods: An open label study in which 389 children 14 to 18 months of age, previously primed with 3 doses of a MenC vaccine conjugated with CRM(197) (MenC-CRM) or with 2 doses of a MenC vaccine conjugated with tetanus toxoid (MenC-TT), were randomized to be boosted with either of these vaccines and a DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine at the same time. Immunogenicity against MenC and Haemophilus influenzae type b was assessed before and 1 month after the booster dose.

Results: Before the second year booster, 44.

Information collected from traditional tribal healers, medicine m

Information collected from traditional tribal healers, medicine men etc has revealed that plant/plant parts of 77 species from Chhindwara AZD3965 ic50 district and 50 species from Betul district of forest origin are utilized as paste, powder, juice, decoction and extract for the treatment of various diseases of local people of the area. The knowledge

of plants used by traditional herbal healers for ailments would be immense help to replace synthetic drugs.”
“The circadian clock is a fundamental feature of eukaryotic gene regulation that is emerging as an exemplar genetic sub-network for systems biology. The circadian system in Arabidopsis plants is complex, in part due to its phototransduction pathways, which are themselves under circadian control. We therefore analysed two simpler experimental systems. Etiolated seedlings entrained by temperature cycles showed circadian rhythms in the expression of genes that are important for the clock mechanism, but only a restricted set of downstream target genes were rhythmic in microarray assays. Clock control

of phototransduction pathways remained robust across a range of light inputs, despite the arrhythmic NVP-BSK805 transcription of light-signalling genes. Circadian interactions with light signalling were then analysed using a single active photoreceptor. Phytochrome A (phyA) is expected to be the only active photoreceptor that can mediate far-red (FR) light input to the circadian clock. Surprisingly, rhythmic gene expression was profoundly altered under constant FR light, in a phyA-dependent manner, resulting in high expression of evening genes and low expression of morning genes. Dark intervals were required to allow high-amplitude rhythms

across the transcriptome. Clock genes involved in this response were identified by mutant analysis, showing that the EARLY FLOWERING 4 gene is a likely target and mediator of the FR effects. Both experimental systems illustrate how profoundly the light input pathways signaling pathway affect the plant circadian clock, and provide strong experimental manipulations to understand critical steps in the plant clock mechanism.”
“The authors investigated aspects of interpersonal sensitivity and perspective-taking in relation to empathy, social cognitions, and executive functioning in 26 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients. Behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD) patients were significantly impaired on caregiver assessments of empathy, although self-ratings were normal. Progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic-dementia samples were rarely abnormal. In bvFTD, empathy ratings were found to be correlated with social cognition and executive functioning measures, but not depression. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that reduced empathic perspective-taking was related to bifrontal and left anterior temporal atrophy, whereas empathic emotions were related to right medial frontal atrophy.