All treatments were conducted during a 20 min session Fear condi

All treatments were conducted during a 20 min session. Fear conditioning training, by itself, increased c-Fos expression in multiple subdivisions of the CE and throughout the DR. In contrast, fear-potentiated startle selectively increased

c-Fos expression in the medial subdivision of the CE and in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRD). These data are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that fear-related stimuli selectively activate DRD serotonergic neurons. Further studies of this mesolimbocortical serotonergic system could have important implications for understanding mechanisms underlying vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. (C) 2011 IBRO. Lonafarnib ic50 Volasertib Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. We evaluated the longitudinal association between self-rated health (SRH) and timed gait, an indicator of lower extremity dysfunction, in a community-based sample of older persons.

Methods. Participants (N = 754) were evaluated at 18-month intervals for 72 months. SRH was categorized as Excellent/Very Good/Good and Fair/Poor. Participants were asked to walk a 10-foot course “”as fast as it feels safe and comfortable,”" turn around,

and walk back, with timed gait defined as normal (<= 10 s) or slow (>10 s). Generalized

multinomial logit models, adjusted for demographic features, biomedical and psychosocial factors, and activities of daily living, evaluated the association between SRH and the likelihood of 6 possible transitions (from normal or slow timed gait to normal timed gait, slow timed gait, or death) over time. We also ran a repeated measures linear mixed model with change in timed gait as the outcome.

Results. Compared with participants reporting Excellent/Very Good/Good SRH, those reporting Fair/Poor SRH science were more likely to transition from normal to slow timed gait or to death. SRH was not associated with transitions from slow timed gait to normal timed gait or to death. In addition, time to complete the gait task increased (i.e., slowed) over time among participants reporting Fair/Poor SRH compared with those reporting Excellent/Very Good/Good SRH.

Discussion. Among older persons, SRH is associated with the development of lower extremity dysfunction but not with recovery from lower extremity dysfunction. This relationship may indicate an intermediate step in the pathway from SRH to mortality.”
“The pontomesencephalic tegmentum (PMT) provides cholinergic input to the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MG). PMT cells are often characterized as projecting to more than one target.

Here we have compared

Here we have compared SBI-0206965 their behavior in two different experimental setups with testing chambers of different sizes and light intensities as well as in complete darkness. We demonstrated similar degrees of light aversion in nestin/hRAMP1 mice with 1000 and 50 lux. To control for other possible

factors driving nestin/hRAMP1 mice to the dark zone, we tested them in the absence of any light, and they showed identical behavior as littermates. Furthermore, both nestin/hRAMP1 and control mice have decreased motility in response to CGRP in the dark, but not the light side of the chamber. Our findings confirm the robust CGRP-induced light-aversive phenotype of nestin/hRAMP1 mice, which can be a surrogate of photophobia, and validates its usefulness as a model of migraine and other disorders Selleck PSI-7977 associated with photophobia. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its cognate receptor were reported to mediate anxiolytic-like and arousal effects. NPS receptors are predominantly expressed in the brain, especially in limbic structures, including

amygdala, olfactory nucleus, subiculum and retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, the NPS precursor is expressed in only a few brainstem nuclei where it is co-expressed with various excitatory transmitters, including glutamate. The current study investigates interactions of the NPS system with glutamatergic neurotransmission. It has been suggested that dysfunctions in glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be involved in

Roscovitine mouse the pathophysiology of schizophrenia since NMDA receptor antagonists, such as MK-801, have been shown to induce psychotic-like behavior in humans and animal models. Also, MK-801 is known to produce histological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuoles in retrosplenial cortex neurons where NPS receptors are highly expressed. In this study we show that NPS is able to alleviate neuropathological, neurochemical and behavioral changes produced by NMDA receptor antagonists. NPS treatment attenuated MK-801-induced vacuolization in the rat retrosplenial cortex in a dose-dependent manner that can be blocked by an NPS receptor-selective antagonist. NPS also suppressed MK-801-induced increases of extracellular acetylcholine levels in the retrosplenial cortex. In the prepulse inhibition (PPI) assay, animals pretreated with NPS recovered significantly from MK-801-induced disruption of PPI. Our study suggests that NPS may have protective effects against the neurotoxic and behavioral changes produced by NMDA receptor antagonists and that NPS receptor agonists may elicit antipsychotic effects. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The inverse relationship between the incidence and the average age of first infection for immunizing agents has become a basic tenet in the theory underlying the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases.

In this review, we focus on the short-term regulation of AQP4 Ph

In this review, we focus on the short-term regulation of AQP4. Phosphorylation of AQP4 is important; AQP4 is inhibited when Ser180 is phosphorylated

and activated when Ser111 is phosphorylated. AQP4 is also regulated by several metal ions. These metal ions inhibit AQP4 by interacting with the Cys178 residue located in the cytoplasmic BMS202 in vitro loop D, suggesting that AQP4 is regulated by intracellular signaling pathways in response to extracellular stimuli. Recently, it was demonstrated that AQP4 may be inhibited by arylsulfonamides, antiepileptic drugs and other related chemical compounds. Structural analysis of AQP4 may guide a drug design for AQP4. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) have been visualized for many years by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Our laboratory discovered that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the protein responsible for OAP formation by demonstrating LY2090314 OAPs in AQP4-transfected cells and absence of OAPs in AQP4 knockout mice. We recently developed live-cell, single-molecule imaging methods to

study AQP4 diffusion and interactions in OAPs. The methods include single particle tracking of quantum-dot labeled AQP4, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and small fluorophore-labeled AQP4. The full-length (M1) form of AQP4 diffuses freely in membranes and does not form OAPs, whereas the shorter (M23) form of AQP4 forms OAPs and is nearly immobile. Analysis of a series of AQP4 truncations, point mutants and chimeras revealed that OAP formation by AQP4-M23 is stabilized by hydrophobic tetramer-tetramer interactions involving Fosbretabulin cell line N-terminus residues, and that absence of OAPs in AQP4-M1 results from blocking of this interaction by residues just upstream from Met23. These biophysical methods are being extended to identify the cellular site of AQP4 assembly, AQP4 isoform interactions, OAP size and dynamics, and the determinants of regulated OAP assembly. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Unlike other mammalian

AQPs, multiple tetramers of AQP4 associate in the plasma membrane to form peculiar structures called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs), that are observable by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). However, FFEM cannot give information about the composition of OAPs of different sizes, and due to its technical complexity is not easily applicable as a routine technique. Recently, we employed the 2D gel electrophoresis BN-SDS/PAGE that for the first time enabled the biochemical isolation of AQP4-OAPs from several tissues. We found that AQP4 protein is present in several higher-order complexes (membrane pools of supra-structures) which contain different ratios of M1/M23 isoforms corresponding to AQP4-OAPs of different size.

“The functional role of presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric

“The functional role of presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric

acid (GABA)(A) receptors in excitatory glutamatergic transmission was examined in rat periaqueductal gray neurons recorded using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude, and this effect was completely blocked by the selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist. The muscimol-induced facilitation of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency disappeared check details either in the presence of tetrodotoxin or Cd2+. The results suggest that the activation of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors directly depolarizes glutamatergic terminals resulting in the facilitation of spontaneous glutamate release, and that presynaptic GABA(A) receptors play an important role in the regulation of various physiological functions mediated by the periaqueductal gray. NeuroReport 22:834-838 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams &

“It has been suggested that poor habituation to stimuli might explain atypical sensory behaviours in autism. We investigated habituation to repeated sounds using an oddball paradigm in 9-month-old LEE011 mouse infants with an older sibling with autism and hence at high risk for developing autism. Auditory-evoked responses to repeated sounds in control infants (at low risk of developing autism) decreased over time, demonstrating habituation, and their responses to deviant sounds were larger than responses to standard sounds, indicating discrimination. In contrast, neural responses in infants at high risk showed less habituation and a reduced sensitivity to changes in frequency. Reduced sensory habituation may be present at a younger age than the emergence of autistic behaviour in some individuals, and we propose that this could play a role in the over responsiveness Selleck Trichostatin A to some stimuli and undersensitivity

to others observed in autism. NeuroReport 22:845-849 (C) 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Purpose: We determined the incidence of urinary tract cancer in patients with hematuria, stratified risk by age, gender and hematuria degree, and examined current best policy recommendations.

Materials and Methods: We performed a large, retrospective population based cohort study of patients who underwent microscopic urinalysis during 2004 and 2005 in a large managed care organization. Patients were followed for 3 years for urinary tract cancer.

Results: We identified 772,002 patients who underwent urinalysis during the study period. After exclusions due to previous hematuria, age less than 18 years, pregnancy, urinary tract infection, inpatient status and prior urinary tract cancer 309,402 patients were available for analysis, of whom 156,691 had hematuria. The overall 3-year incidence of urinary tract cancer in those with hematuria was 0.68%.

Using the ADHD screening questionnaire, the Adult ADHD Self-Repor

Using the ADHD screening questionnaire, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, we investigated the association between the amount of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in a non-clinical population of healthy students (n=56) and the neural correlates of error processing measured with event-related potentials. We found reduced amplitudes of error-positivity (Pe) with increasing symptoms of inattention, but no correlation with error-related negativity. These results suggest that attention deficits reduce the conscious evaluation of an error as reflected by reduced Pe amplitudes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

“Anatomical and functional brain studies AG-14699 have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects’ attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that functional connectivity changes in opposite ways in ASD and typicals as attention shifts from external world towards one’s body generated information. Furthermore, ASD subject alter more markedly than typicals their connectivity across cognitive states. Using differences in brain connectivity across conditions, we ranked brain regions according

to their classification power. Anterior Fedratinib nmr next insula and dorsal-anterior cingulate cortex were the regions that better

characterize ASD differences with typical subjects across conditions, and this effect was modulated by ASD severity. These results pave the path for diagnosis of mental pathologies based on functional brain networks obtained from a library of mental states. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: This study assessed comparative effectiveness of minimally invasive versus traditional sternotomy mitral valve surgery in elderly patients.

Methods: From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2008, 1005 patients underwent isolated mitral valve surgery at our institution. Patients >= 75-years-old were included in analysis (sternotomy, n = 105; minimally invasive, n 70). Clinical outcomes included bypass and crossclamp time, length of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. To assess resource use, total hospital costs and discharge location were analyzed. Three standardized inpatient functional status outcomes were also assessed.

Results: The minimally invasive approach was associated with a 9.2-minute longer crossclamp time (P = .037) and a 25.2-minute longer bypass time (P <. 001). Minimally invasive surgery was associated with a 3.1-day shorter hospitalization (P = .033). There were no significant differences in rate of major postoperative complications (P = .085) or long-term survival (P = .60).

All rights reserved “
“Knowledge of demographic and social c

All rights reserved.”
“Knowledge of demographic and social correlates of problem gambling among men and women in general population samples is limited. Such research is important for identifying individuals who may become problem gamblers. The current research

used a gender-stratified analysis using logistic regression models in a nationally representative sample to identify correlates of problem gambling among men and women. AG-14699 Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (CCHS 1.2; data collected in 2002; response rate 77%). The 12-month prevalence of problem gambling among men and women who endorsed gambling in the past year was 4.9% and 2.7%, respectively. For women, increased odds of problem gambling was associated with middle age, middle to low levels of income, a high school diploma or less, being never-married, higher levels of life stress, and negative coping abilities. For men, being aged 70 or greater decreased the odds of problem gambling, while being separated, widowed, or divorced, lower levels of social support, and negative coping abilities increased the odds of problem gambling. These findings have important GPCR & G Protein inhibitor public health implications for identifying men and women who may be more

likely to become problem gamblers in the general population. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a sirtuin family protein, is a tubulin deacetylase. Recent studies have indicated that SIRT2 plays a key role in programmed necrosis, and the SIRT2 inhibitor AGK2 can decrease the cell death both in a cellular model of Parkinson’s disease and in an animal model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. However, there has been little information regarding

the role of SIRT2 in microglial survival and functions, which play critical roles in multiple neurological disorders. Our current study found that AGK2 at 10 mu M – a widely used AGK2 concentration – can induce both late-stage apoptosis and necrosis, as well as a decrease in the intracellular ATP levels of microglial BV2 cells. Our study also showed that both the AGK2-induced cell death and the AGK2-induced ATP decline VX-661 purchase are mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. Collectively, our study has provided the first evidence suggesting a significant role of SIRT2 in the basal survival of microglia, as well as a mechanism accounting for the effects of SIRT2 on intracellular ATP levels. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This study identified empirically derived subtypes of gamblers based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling disorder (PGD). Data from the gamblers (n = 5644) who participated in the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (BGPS) were analysed using latent class analysis. Common socio-demographic correlates of PGD were subsequently assessed across the classes.

“Background: A recent

epidemic of melamine contami

“Background: A recent

epidemic of melamine contamination of baby formula in China has been associated with the development of urinary tract stones, though the clinical manifestations and predisposing factors are incompletely delineated.

Methods: We administered a questionnaire to the parents of children 36 months of age or younger who were being screened for a history of exposure to melamine and symptoms of, and possible NU7441 supplier predisposing factors for, urinary tract stones. In addition, we performed urinalysis, renal-function and liver-function tests, urinary tests for biochemical markers and the calcium:creatinine ratio, and ultrasonography. Powdered-milk infant formulas were classified as having a high melamine content (>500 ppm), a moderate melamine content (<150 ppm), or no melamine (0 ppm); no formulas contained between 150 and 500 ppm of melamine.

Results: Contaminated formula was ingested by 421 of 589 children. Fifty had urinary stones, including 8 who had not received melamine-contaminated formula;

112 were suspected selleck compound to have stones; and 427 had no stones. Among children with stones, 5.9% had hematuria and 2.9% had leukocyturia, percentages that did not differ significantly from those among children who were suspected to have stones or those who did not have stones. Serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and alanine aminotransferase levels were normal in the 22 children with stones who were tested. Four of the 41 children (9.8%) who had stones and in whom urinary markers of glomerular function were measured had evidence of abnormalities; none had tubular dysfunction. Children exposed to high-melamine formula were 7.0 times as likely to have stones as those exposed to no-melamine formula. Preterm infants were 4.5 times as likely to have stones as term infants.

Conclusions: Prematurity

and exposure to melamine-contaminated formula were associated with urinary stones. Affected children lacked typical VE 822 signs and symptoms of urolithiasis.

N Engl J Med 2009;360:1067-74.”
“The N-terminal region of the native human prion protein encompasses four highly conserved octarepeats that each contain a single His, Pro, Gln, and Trp residue as well as several Gly residues. At neutral pH these repeats are capable of individually binding copper (Cu2+) ions, involving the His side chain and the backbone amide of the Gly residues. In addition, the two His residues at positions 96 and 111 are also capable of binding Cu2+. At low concentrations of the metal ion or at low pH, one Cu2+ may be bound by multiple His residues of the four octarepeats. This complex is known to be redox active, while none of the other Cu2+-bound complexes are. Using density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations data demonstrated how this form of the protein could reduce Cu2+, through a process involving electron transfer from the Trp side chain.

The extant gene x environment research, however, has failed to me

The extant gene x environment research, however, has failed to measure directly the ways in which global measures of genetic risk may interact with a putative environmental

risk factor. The current study addresses this gap in the literature and examines the interrelationships among a global measure of genetic risk based on five genetic polymorphisms, a measure of parent-child relations, and eight antisocial phenotypes. Analysis of African-American males (N = 145 to 159) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed two broad findings. First. the genetic risk and parent-child relations scales were inconsistently related to the outcome variables. Second, genetic risk and parent-child relations interacted to predict variation

AZD9291 concentration in all of the eight antisocial phenotype measures. These findings point to the possibility that measures of genetic risk that are based on LCZ696 mw multiple polymorphisms can be employed to examine the gene x environmental basis to antisocial behavioral phenotypes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is disproportionately carried by low-income and middle-income countries and disadvantaged sectors of society such as prisoners. No systematic analysis has been done to assess the prevalence of poor diet, inadequate physical activity, and overweight and obesity in prisoners. We aim to synthesise current evidence and to highlight areas for action and further research.

Methods We systematically searched Selleck EPZ-6438 online databases for reports published between 1948 and May, 2011. Studies were screened against eligibility criteria; two authors then independently extracted data with previously agreed proformas. The risk of bias was assessed for each study with a domain-based assessment. Data on body-mass index and physical activity were presented in forest plots; no overall estimates were calculated on account of data heterogeneity. Available data from the population subgroup most similar in terms of age and sex were used

to calculate age-adjusted and sex-adjusted prevalence ratios, which estimate the likelihood of insufficient activity and obesity prevalence in prisoners compared with the national population.

Findings 31 eligible studies were reported in 29 publications, including more than 60 000 prisoners in 884 institutions in 15 countries. Male prisoners were less likely to be obese than males in the general population (prevalence ratios ranged from 0.33 to 0.87) in all but one study (1.02, 0.92-1.07), whereas female prisoners were more likely to be obese than non-imprisoned women in the USA (1.18, 1.08-1.30) and Australia (prevalence ratios ranged from 1.15 to 1.20). Australian prisoners were more likely to achieve sufficient activity levels than the general population compared with prisoners in the UK (prevalence ratio 1.

Methods: We randomly assigned 230 patients with metastatic, non-s

Methods: We randomly assigned 230 patients with metastatic, non-small-cell

lung cancer and EGFR mutations who had not previously received chemotherapy to receive gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel. The primary end point was progression-free survival; secondary end points included overall survival, response rate, and toxic effects.

Results: In the planned interim analysis of data for the first 200 patients, progression-free survival was significantly longer in the gefitinib group than in the standard-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death or disease progression with gefitinib, 0.36; P<0.001), resulting in early termination of the study. The gefitinib group had a significantly longer median progression-free survival (10.8 months, vs. 5.4 months

in the chemotherapy group; hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.22 to 0.41; P<0.001), as well as a higher response rate (73.7% vs. 30.7%, P<0.001). Sotrastaurin The median overall survival was 30.5 months in the gefitinib group and 23.6 months in the chemotherapy group (P=0.31). The most common adverse events in the gefitinib group were rash (71.1%) and elevated aminotransferase levels (55.3%), and in the chemotherapy group, neutropenia (77.0%), anemia (64.6%), appetite loss (56.6%), and sensory neuropathy (54.9%). One patient receiving gefitinib died from interstitial lung disease.

Conclusions: First-line gefitinib for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer who were selected on the basis of EGFR mutations improved progression-free survival, with acceptable toxicity, as compared with standard chemotherapy. OSI-027 price PLX 4720 (UMIN-CTR number, C000000376.)

N Engl J Med 2010;362:2380-8.”
“NS4B is one of the nonstructural proteins of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a putative Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-like domain. This TIR-like motif harbors two conserved domains, box 1 and box 2, also observed in other members of the TIR superfamily, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs).

Mutations within the BICv NS4B box 2 domain (V2566A, G2567A, I2568A) produced recombinant virus NS4B. VGIv, with an altered phenotype displaying enhanced transcriptional activation of TLR-7-induced genes in swine macrophages, including a significant sustained accumulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA. Transfection of swine macrophages with the wild-type NS4B gene partially blocked the TLR-7-activating effect of imiquimod (R837), while transfection with the NS4B gene harboring mutations in either of the putative boxes displayed decreased blocking activity. NS4B. VGIv showed an attenuated phenotype in swine, displaying reduced replication in the oronasal cavity and limited spread from the inoculation site to secondary target organs.


(3) The ecological physiology properties for the


(3) The ecological physiology properties for the hamster were higher MR and wider TNZ in winter but a lower MR and narrower TNZ in summer, which were closely related to their living habits, characterized by a cold winter and hot, dry summer. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Forebrain malformations include CBL0137 some of the most severe developmental anomalies and require early diagnosis. The proof of normal or abnormal prosencephalic development may have an influence on further management in the event of a suspected fetal malformation.

The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detectability of anatomical landmarks of forebrain development using in vivo fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before gestational week (gw) 27.

MRI studies of 83 singleton fetuses (gw 16-26, average +/- sd: gw 22 +/- 2) performed at 1.5 Tesla were assessed. T2-weighted (w) fast spin echo, T1w gradient-echo and diffusion-weighted sequences were screened for the detectability of anatomical landmarks as listed below.

The interhemispheric fissure, ocular bulbs, corpus callosum, infundibulum, chiasm, septum Selleck SHP099 pellucidum (SP), profile, and palate were detectable in 95%,

95%, 89%, 87%, 82%, 81%, 78%, 78% of cases. Olfactory tracts were more easily delineated than bulbs and sulci (37% versus 18% and 8%), with significantly higher detection rates in the coronal plane. The pituitary gland could be detected on T1w selleck images in 60% with an increasing diameter with gestational age (p = 0.041). The delineation of olfactory tracts (coronal plane), chiasm, SP and pituitary gland were significantly increased after week

21 (p < 0.05). Pathologies were found in 28% of cases.

This study provides detection rates for anatomical landmarks of forebrain development with fetal MRI before gw 27. Several anatomical structures are readily detectable with routine fetal MRI sequences; thus, if these landmarks are not delineable, it should raise the suspicion of a pathology. Recommendations regarding favorable sequences/planes are provided.”
“Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth.