TB80 and TB84 were cultured over night at 37° in LB medium with 0.1% L-arabinose and diluted 1:100 into fresh SCH727965 nmr LB medium containing 0.01% L-arabinose. In early exponential phase, cultures were washed
at least twice in LB supplemented with 0.4% glucose to remove residual L-arabinose. Wildtype E. coli MG1655 was treated similar for control experiments. 1.5 μl of a washed and diluted culture were transferred to the surface of a pad of LB agar (supplemented with D-glucose, L-arabinose, chloramphenicol or kanamycin as indicated for individual experiments) in a microscope cavity slide. The agar pad was closed with a cover slip and sealed with vacuum grease. Under these conditions, cells can grow exponentially in a two-dimensional plane for many generations without restrictions . The slide was mounted onto an automated microscope Nepicastat datasheet (Olympus BX81) and incubated at 37°C (Cube and Box incubation system, Life Imaging Services, Reinach, Switzerland). Images were recorded every 2 or 4 minutes. Intensity and exposure times to fluorescent light were minimized to avoid cellular damage. The resulting image sequences were analyzed with the Matlab based script package “”Schnitzcell”" (kindly provided by Michael Elowitz, CalTech, USA ), and data was extracted with custom-made Matlab scripts (Table 1). Table 1 List
of strains and plasmids Strain name Vistusertib clinical trial Relevant genotype Source DY330 W3110□lacU169 gal490 cI857 (cro-bioA)  MG1655 F- lambda- ilvG- rfb-50 rph-1  TB55 MG1655 araC-kan-yabI This study TB79 kan-araC-Para-ygjD This study TB80 frt::araC-Para-ygjD This study TB82 frt::araC-Para-ygjD
Sclareol ΔrelA::kan This study TB83 frt::araC-Para-ygjD ΔrelA::frt This study TB84 frt::araC-Para-ygjD ΔrelA::frt ΔspoT::kan This study FfH kan-araC-Para-ffh This study DnaT kan-araC-Para-dnaT This study FldA kan-araC-Para-fldA This study AB1058 ΔspoT::kan ΔrelA::frt This study pCP20 FLP+ λ cI857+ λ PR Repts AmpR CamR  Statistical analysis To quantify associations between phenotypic traits, we used non-parametric correlation analysis (Spearman’s rank correlation in PASW Statistics 18.0). Acknowledgements TB and MA were supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, RPM by IDEA League and CONACYT. We thank Nela Nikolic, Robert Beardmore and Olin Silander for helpful discussions. Electronic supplementary material Additional File 1: Movie 1. TB80 (ppGpp + ) growing on LB agar with 0.1% L-arabinose. 100 frames (one frame per two minutes) were compressed into 10 seconds. The scale bar is 5 μm in size (same in all movies hereafter). (MOV 596 KB) Additional File 2: Movie 2: MG1655 growing on LB agar with 0.4% glucose. 100 frames (one frame per two minutes) were compressed into 10 seconds. (MOV 1 MB) Additional File 3: Figure S1: MG1655 expressing GFP from P ara shifted from LB arabinose 0.01% to LB glucose 0.4%.