Similarly, HSV has been described to modulate the level of costimulatory molecules expressed on both T cells and DCs []. Moreover, influenza virus, in contrast to HSV, is capable of eliciting CD4+ T-cell
help-independent CD8+ T-cell priming, presumably due to its ability selleck products to upregulate CD40L on DCs. Furthermore, the pathogen-induced inflammatory milieu may also account for the ability to instruct T-cell help-independent CD8+ T-cell responses. We have previously shown that upon infection with vaccinia virus, IL-12 is induced in a T-cell help-dependent manner [], whereas certain other virus infections (e.g., LCMV) induce potent Type-I IFN responses at the expense of IL-12 production []. In contrast to IL-12 induction after vaccinia virus infection, Type-I IFN production after LCMV infection is T-cell Selleckchem R428 help-independent and is
therefore a candidate molecule driving T-cell help-independent CD8+ T-cell responses. In support of this hypothesis, we could show that differences in the T-cell help-dependence between various infections is chiefly influenced by the ability of a specific infectious agent to stimulate an early robust production of Type-I IFN []. There is also extensive evidence that signals via the IL-12 receptor or Type-I IFN receptor initiate a differentiation program which involves increased expression of numerous genes that encode for proteins important for clonal expansion and survival of both effector and memory cells [[51, 52]]. However, all of
these studies cannot exclude a synergistic effect between direct Type-I IFN signaling on CD8+ T cells and additional signals provided by other cell types, as it has been reported that the immune stimulatory activity of Type-I IFN results at least partly from its ability to induce DC maturation []. In conclusion, the current data suggest that in infections/ immunizations, which lead to robust CD4+ T cell-independent selleck kinase inhibitor Type-I IFN production, CD4+ T-cell help is not required for primary CD8+ T-cell responses, as long as APC maturation is provided by the infecting agent or an adjuvant. In the case of infections/immunizations, which are associated with a predominant IL-12 response, the CD4+ T-cell dependence of primary CD8+ T-cell responses may relate to whether sufficient IL-12 production by the priming APC requires engagement with CD4+ T cells. Finally, in the case of “weak” immunogens, which do not by themselves promote the maturation of DCs, CD4+ T cells are required not only to induce inflammatory third signals for CD8+ T-cell activation but also to induce DC maturation (Fig. 1).